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Pendik Belediyesi

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Ahmet Cihat Kahraman

on 17 May 2017

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Transcript of Pendik Belediyesi

Avrupa Yerel Yönetimler Enerji ve Enerji Verimliligi Çalışmaları
Siemens’in desteği ile Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) “Yeşil KentlerEndeksi”
Amaç; dünyanın farklı bölgelerinden kentlerin bölgesel farkılıklarını da gözeterek sürdürülebilirliklerini ölçmek, performanslarını değerlendirmek ve karşılaştırmak.
Türkiye Yerel Yönetimler Enerji ve Enerji Verimliligi Çalışmaları
Bu çalışmada örnek 3 belediye incelenecektir.

Şehit Kamil ilçesi 1 MW güneş enerjisi santral projesi 2015 yılı içerisinde tamamlanacaktır. 2. etap çalışma ile bölgede 5 MW santral kurulumu tamamlanacaktır.
Hizmet binaları, tesislerin park ve raylı sistemlerin tükettiği enerji miktarının anlık takip edilmesi. Bu sayede artan enerji ihtiyacına yenilikçi projeler geliştirilerek tüketimin azaltılacaktır.
Enerji verimliliği çalışmaları neticesinde 2023 yılına gelindiğinde enerji tüketiminin kişi başına %15 azaltılması hedeflenmektedir.
Enerji Şube Müdürlüğünün yaptığı enerji verimliliği çalışmaları neticesinde her yıl gaziantep 16 milyon TL tasarruf etmektedir.
TEVEM ve ENVERDER Raporlarının Degerlendirmesi
Enerji Tüketim Trendi
Toplantı Gündemi
Gaziantep Büyükşehir Belediyesi
Bursa Nilüfer Belediyesi
Kadıköy Beldiyesi
Petroleum:

It occurs in the interior of the Earth, by transformation of organic matter accumulated in sediments from geological past and can accumulate in natural geological traps, where it is extracted by drilling wells.
Transportation:
The transportation of crude oil from fields and refineries are in charge of a fleet of some 4,000 large ships and a pipeline network of tens of thousands of kilometers. Any given day, about 5 million tons of oil are moving along this network.A small part of this flow travels towards Spain, mainly from Saudi Arabia, Iran, Nigeria, Mexico and Venezuela. Once I reached the shores, oil is discharged in refineries. The main problem of transporting oil is its danger. There have been accidents on pipelines that have left dozens of victims. Spills on land or sea, are another serious problem.

Uses:
The oil is used for many things today, we can obtain the electric power, gasoline, detergents, plastics, fibers for clothing, asphalt and much more
Coal:
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. Coal is made of the remains of ancient trees and plants that grew in great swampy jungles in warm, moist climates hundreds of millions of years ago. The chemical and organic process these dead organisms undergo to become coal is known as Carbonization.


Extraction:
Coal miners use giant machines to remove coal from the ground. Modern mining methods allow us to easily reach most of our coal reserves. Due to growth in surface mining and improved mining technology, the amount of coal produced by one miner in one hour has more than tripled since 1978.
-Surface mining can be used when the coal is buried less than 200 feet underground. In surface mining, giant machines remove the top-soil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal. Once the mining is finished, the dirt and rock are returned to the pit, the topsoil is replaced, and the area is replanted. The land can then be used for croplands, wildlife habitats, recreation, or offices or stores.
-Underground mining, sometimes called deep mining, is used when the coal is buried several hundred feet below the surface. Some underground mines are 1,000 feet deep. To remove coal in these underground mines, miners ride elevators down deep mine shafts where they run machines that dig out the coal.

Uses:
Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel.
Different types of coal have different uses. Steam coal - also known as thermal coal - is mainly used in power generation. Coking coal - also known as metallurgical coal - is mainly used in steel production.Other important users of coal include alumina refineries, paper manufacturers, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Several chemical products can be produced from the by-products of coal. Refined coal tar is used in the manufacture of chemicals, such as creosote oil, naphthalene, phenol, and benzene. Ammonia gas recovered from coke ovens is used to manufacture ammonia salts, nitric acid and agricultural fertilisers. Thousands of different products have coal or coal by-products as components: soap, aspirins, solvents, dyes, plastics and fibres, such as rayon and nylon. Coal is also an essential ingredient in the production of specialist products
Pendik Nüfus Oranları (2000-2014)
Pendik Hizmet Binaları Enerji Tüketimleri
2019 Yılına Gelindiginde Tüketim Miktarı
Hydraulic energy:
It is mainly used to produce electricity. The potential of water in its highest energy is lost as the water level decreases; water gains kinetic energy, which reaches a rotation turbine which drives a generator and produces electricity.
Advantages:
◘It is inexhaustible while not change the water cycle.
◘It has a low maintenance cost.
◘It has a low impact on the environment.
◘It have long life.
◘It can be used both for consumption and for small industrial level.

Disadvantages:
◘ Hydroelectric plants require significant infrastructure development to produce electricity.
◘ The construction of large dams, like any other civil works, generates negative effects on the environment during the construction period, while sometimes involves the disappearance under the waters of the reservoir of entire populations, such as San Swamp Clemente. Although the experience and the adoption of more stringent legislation, have developed increasingly environmentally impactful methods.

Solar energy:
Solar energy is the energy obtained from the use of electromagnetic radiation
from the sun.

Advantages:
◘It is clean energy.
◘It comes from an inexhaustible source of energy.
◘It is an ideal system for harnessing energy to areas where the power line fails (field, islands) or is difficult and costly to transfer (best for more than 5 Km).
◘The solar collection systems are easy to maintain.
◘ The cost decreases as technology progresses (the cost of fuel increases over time because fewer and fewer).

Disadvantages:
◘ The radiation level fluctuates from one area to another and from one season to another
◘ To collect solar energy on a large scale large tracts of land are required.
◘ requires large initial investment.
◘ should complement this method of converting energy with others.
◘ The places where there is more radiation are desert and remote areas (energy that was not taken to develop agricultural or industrial activity, etc.).


Wind energy:

This energy gain is achieved by means of wind turbines. Wind energy is used to spin a turbine that moves a generator to produce electricity. For this to occur the wind speed has to be 5 to 25m / s.
Advantages:
◘It is a reliable source of renewable energy.
◘It not produce emissions or generate residues, except for the manufacture of equipment and gear oil.
◘This is mobile facilities, their dismantling allows full recovery of the area.
◘Fast construction time (less than 6 months).
◘The economic benefit for affected municipalities (annual fee for land use). Indigenous resource.
◘ Installation is compatible with many other land uses.

Disadvantages:
◘ Visual impact: installation generates high landscape modification.
◘ Impact on birds: mainly by the collision of birds against the blades, unknown effects on the modification of the usual migration and nesting behavior.
◘ Sound Impact: rubbing of the blades with air produces a constant noise, the nearest house should be at least
200 m

Marine energy:
Geothermal energy:
Geothermal energy is to harness the heat energy from inside the Earth. The interior of the earth is hot as a result of the merger of the rocks. Found more than 200 rocks. The hot water also comes out through cracks in the rocks.
.

Biomass:
Biomass is the set of plants and organic materials which can get energy. Firewood is considered one of the first known energy sources. Today is dangerous fuel wood consumption as there is a great danger of deforestation of forests. So organic materials is typically used and rapid growth plants for use as fuel.
Municipal Solid Waste:
Municipal solid waste (MSW), Commonly Known as trash or garbage in the US and as refuse or rubbish in the UK, is a waste type Consisting of everyday items That are discarded by the public. "Garbage" Also can refer to food waste Specifically, as in a garbage disposal; Collected: sometimes the two are separately.


AB tarafından Avrupanın değişik iklim bölgelerinde sürdürülebilir kentler için yerleşme modeli geliştirmek üzere desteklenen projenin ev sahiplerinden birisidir.
Enerji ve enerji verimliliği çalışmalrına başlayan bu konuda enerji yönetim merkezini bünyesinde çalışmaları devam etmektedir.
Natural gas:
Extraction:
The extraction of natural gas begins with the drilling of a well. These wells are drilled on purpose for natural gas, but because natural gas is often found in the same deposits that oil, sometimes the extraction of natural gas is a side operation of the extraction of oil or pumped again in the well for future extraction. In a typical operation, the well is drilled, a shell of concrete and metal is installed in the hole and a sump pump installed above it.
Transport:
After being removed from the underground reservoir, natural gas, crude oil is first transported to a collection point. Here, the adjacent pipes carry the crude gas wells to a pre-treatment, which removes water and condensate. Then it is almost always channeled to a processing plant. If this is not feasible, the gas is pumped to an underground storage facility for channeling and future use. It is too expensive to liquefy natural gas crude to be shipped to a refinery and this is rarely, if ever done.
Extraction:
To reach an underground oil reservoir drilling the ground with some huge hole formed by a thick steel drill bit is applied to the end of a metal rod. This bar, supported by a tower high rise metal, driven by a motor rotates and perforates the ground penetrating it deeply. As the floor is pierced, is being introduced into the hole a pipe to prevent the walls from collapsing. So be digging a deeper and deeper hole. During drilling is thrown into the bar, which is hollow, a steady stream of heavy mud. The functions of the continuous flow of mud are three: cooling the piercing tip, the surface lead to push the remains of the broken rocks, and prevent compressed gas or oil may go outside through the drill stem.
Storage:
the oil is stored in a tank oil (sometimes called a tank, installation or oil terminal) is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and / or petrochemical products and these products are usually transported to the new users or final storage facilities. An oil reservoir tanks normally, either on the surface or underground, and porches to download products in trucks or other vehicles (such as barges) or pipes.
Extraction.
Storage.
Transport.
Uses.
Transformation
: The crude leads not tankers for export is led refiners, where different types of component hydrocarbons are separated so that they can be exploited. Hence, oil is introduced into containers or towers elongated steel (distillation column) inside which there are compartments for the separation of different hydrocarbons, by densidad.La tower is heated to 400 ° C and causes the vapors rise through the different sections, where substances are condensed according to their characteristics.
Extraction.
Storage.
Transport.
Uses.
It is a natural energy from fossil fuels, which is normally located on the land or seabed. It was formed millions of years ago when a number of bodies decomposed as animals and plants, were buried under mud and sand, in the depths of ancient lakes and oceans.
Storage:
It is stored at -161 ° C and atmospheric pressure in special cryogenic tanks for low temperature. The typical LNG tank has a double wall: an outer wall of reinforced concrete, coated carbon steel, and an inner wall of 9% nickel steel. The safety and resistance are primary design considerations when building these tanks, which are designed to withstand earthquakes and strong winds.
Uses:
Climatizacion
Water heating
Natural gas is also used in clothes dryers, washing machines, grills, rice cookers and other devices that require heat, especially in productive and commercial activities that sustain and develop at home.
In the industrial sector, natural gas applications are endless. But, we list some important and well-known industries: food, agribusiness, glass, ceramics, cement, bricks, steel, among others.
Also worth mentioning is the use of natural gas in Peruvian electricity industries, petrochemical and transportation, which are developing new and ambitious projects to enhance the use of natural gas in most of the country.
Nuclear Energy:
Nuclear fusion and fision.
Transformation.
Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms are the smallest particles that can divide a material. At the core of each atom there are two types of particles (neutrons and protons) which are kept together. Nuclear energy is the energy that holds protons and neutrons.Nuclear energy can be used to produce electricity. But first the energy must be released. This energy can be obtained in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fision.
Nuclear fusion:
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two nuclei of light atoms, usually hydrogen and its isotopes (deuterium and tritium), come together to form a heavier nucleus. Generally this union is accompanied by the emission of particles (in the case of deuterium nuclei a neutron is emitted). This nuclear fusion reaction releases or absorbs a lot of energy in form of gamma rays and kinetic energy of the emitted particles. This large amount of energy allows matter into plasma state.Two hydrogen nuclei fuse for helium and energíaLas nuclear fusion reactions can emit or absorb energy. If the cores to be merged have less mass than iron energy is released. Conversely, if the atomic nuclei that fuse are heavier than iron absorbs energy nuclear reaction.


Nuclear fision:
In nuclear fission call the division of the nucleus of an atom. The core becomes various fragments with a mass almost equal to half the original mass of two or three neutrones. The more nuclear fission may occur when a core of a heavy atom captures a neutron (induced fission), or can occur spontaneously due to unstable isotope (spontaneous fission).
Transformation:
Enerji ve Enerji Verimliliği (2010) raporuna göre dünya nufusunun %70'ine yakını 2035 yılına gelindiğinde kentlerde yaşıyacağı öngörülmektedir.
Production.
Transformation.
Advantages.
Disadvantages.
Production:


Hydropower is obtained from the potential and kinetic energy of water bodies carrying rivers from rain and snowmelt energy. The water in its fall between two levels of the channel is passed through a hydraulic turbine which transmits power to an alternator which converts electrical energy. Another system used is to drive the water of a stream very hilly, by a closed pipe, whose base is a turbine. The water is collected in a small dam and the height difference provides the necessary potential energy.
Another one is to make the river a small dam and divert part of the flow through a channel less steep than the river, so that there will be a few miles later earned a certain level difference with the channel and sends down water it through a pipe, with a turbine.









Transformation
:
The force of water is converted into mechanical energy to move the blades of a turbine in a hydroelectric plant, where it is transformed into electrical energy. Hydraulic dams are used for the production of electricity.
Production.
Transformation.
Advantages.
Disadvantages.
Production:
Solar radiation reaching the Earth has been harnessed by humans since ancient times, using different technologies that have evolved. Currently, heat and sunlight can be exploited by various collectors and photovoltaic cells, heliostats or thermal collectors, can become electrical or thermal energy. It is a so-called renewable energy and clean energy, which could help solve some of the most pressing problems facing mankind.
The various solar technologies can be classified into passive or active depending on how they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active technologies include the use of photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors to collect the solar energy. Among the passive techniques, different techniques are framed in bioclimatic architecture: the orientation of buildings to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or having properties for light scattering.
Transformation
:
So that the sun's rays are transformed into solar energy is needed that many electrons to move and circulate through a circuit of natural electricity. Have many more sunlight, have more electrons in motion and, therefore, more solar energy. We can harness the sun in different ways:
• Directly (solar power): using the heat through thermal collectors.
• Indirectly (solar foltovolatica): Installing solar panels (foltovoltaicos panels) that convert solar energy into electricity.


Pronduction.
Transformation.
Advantages.
Disadvantages.
Production:
Transformation:
Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the world’s oceans creates a vast store of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. This energy can be harnessed to generate electricity to power homes, transport and industries.
The term marine energy encompasses both wave power — power from surface waves, and tidal power — obtained from the kinetic energy of large bodies of moving water. Offshore wind power is not a form of marine energy, as wind power is derived from the wind, even if the wind turbines are placed over water.
The oceans have a tremendous amount of energy and are close to many if not most concentrated populations. Ocean energy has the potential of providing a substantial amount of new renewable energy around the world.
The transformation of nuclear energy into electricity occurs in stages:
1- fission of uranium or plutonium nuclei in the nuclear reactor occurs. This emits a lot of energy as heat.
2- The released heat raises the temperature of water in the boiler to the boiling point.
3- The water vapor thus formed is led to turbines which, in its wake, start to turn.
4- A generator converts the kinetic energy of the turbine into electrical energy, which is then distributed for later consumption.
5- In nuclear power plants, control of the reaction temperature is critical. Cooling system to decrease the water temperature so you can return to the boiler is required. Hot water removed has to be cooled before returning to the aquatic environment, to prevent alteration.
Wind energy is related to the movement of air masses move from areas of high atmospheric pressure to adjacent areas of low pressure, with speeds proportional to the pressure gradient.
The winds are generated because of uneven heating of Earth's surface by solar radiation, between 1 and 2% of energy from the sun is converted into wind. By day, the air masses over the oceans, seas and lakes remain cold in relation to neighboring areas located on the continental masses.
Wind energy is used by using wind machines (or windmills) can transform wind energy into usable mechanical energy of rotation, either to directly drive the operating machines, as for the production of electricity. In the latter case, the conversion system, (comprising an electrical generator control systems and network connection) is known as turbine.
Is currently used primarily to move wind turbines. In these wind energy drives a propeller through a mechanical system and is rotated rotor of a generator, usually an alternator, which produces electricity. For installation profitable, usually grouped in concentrations known as wind farms.
A wind turbine is a machine which converts wind into usable energy, which comes from the action of the wind on oblique blades attached to a common axis.
Pendik Belediyesi
Enerji Verimliligi ve Yenilenebilir Enerji Çalışması

Hazırlayan : Sinan Çelik
Elektrik Mühendisi
1-Giriş

2.a- Eğitim
2.b- Enerji Verimliliği
3.c- Yenilenebilir Enerji Kullanım

3- Finansman
4-Üye Olunabilecek Platformlar
5- IPA Bilgilendirme Toplantı Notları
6- Sonuç
1.a- Gelişmişlik Düzeyi Trendinin Değişmesi
1.b- Pendik özelinde TEVEM ve ENVERDER Raporlarının Değerlendirilmesi
Nüfus
Enerji Tüketimi
1.c- 2014 şeçim beyannamesine göre beklenen enerji artışı
1.d- Türkiye'de Yerel Yönetimlerin Enerji veEnerji Verimliliği Çalışmaları
1.e- Avrupa'da Yerel Yönetimlerin Enerji ve Enerji Verimliliği Çalışmaları
Birinci Dünya Savaşı sonrası ülkelerin hangisi daha fazla enerji tüketiyorsa o ülke daha gelişmiş kabul ediliyordu.
Günümüzde ise tüketim miktarının üretime oranı gelişmişlik düzeyini gösteren etkenlerden birisidir.
Aynı rapora göre Türkiye'nin muhtelif büyüme rakamlarına göre her yıl 12 milyar kwh ek enerjiye ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.
Gaziantep Büyükşehir Belediyesi
Bursa Nilüfer Belediyesi
Kadıköy Belediyesi
Belediye iklim değişikliği ile mücadele ve enerji verimliliği faliyetleri raporunda sürdürülebilir enerji eylem planlarını Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma ve Temiz Üretim Merkezi tarafından hazırlanmıştır.
Belediye Başkanları Sözleşmesi imzalamış olup 2020 yılına gelindiğinde sera gazı emisyonunu %20 azaltmayı taahhüt etmiştir.
ICLEI (Local Goverment for Sustanability) ve Bölgesel Çevre Merkezi (REC Türkiye) niyet belgelerini imzalamıştır.
Enerji verimliliği çalışmaları ( hizmet binalarında ısı ponpası, gri su vb.) ile yukarıda ifade edilen taahhütleri bağlamında çalışmalara başlanmıştır.
Aksiyon
Eğitim
Enerji verimliliği
Yenilenebilir Enerji Kullanımı
Egitim
Insan kaynakları enerji verimliliği farkındalığı konusunda kapasite gelişimi
Eğitim (Training)
Teknik ziyaretler ve temaslar (Study Visit)
Enerji Verimliligi
Mekanik Düzenlemeler (Kazan 3 yollu vana kullanımı, frekans kontrol, ısı pompası, gri su vb.)
Bina düzenlemeleri (Yalıtım, pasif bina yönt. vb.)
Aydınlarma
Ofislerde ve diğer çalışma alanlarında pasif enerji yönetimi
Yenilenebilir Enerji Kullanımı
Günümüzde yenilenebilir enerji kaynakları ( rüzgar, güneş, biyokütle vs.) arasında pendik özelinde uygulaması yapılabilir güneş santralleridir.
Güneş pillerinin yeni yapılacak hizmet binalarımızda örnek teşkil edecek uygulamaların yapılması
Finansman
AB hibe projeleri
Kalkınma Ajansları
Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı
iller Bankası
Üye Olunabilecek Platformlar
Başkanlar Sözleşmesi (Covenant of Mayors)
Enerji Kentleri (Enegy cities)
ICLEI
IPA Bilgilendirme Toplantı Notları
AB kartılımı öncesi mali yardım aracı IPA birinci dönemini tamamlandı (2007-2013). 2. dönem (2014-2019) toplam hibe 93,5 milyon Avro
Belediyelerde ve üniversitelerde yenilenebilir enerji ve enerji verimliliğine yönelik kurumsal kapasitenin geliştirilmesi.
Enerji verimliliği ölçüm, değerlenrme ve raporlama faliyetleri için alt yapı geliştirilmesi
Endüstriyel, ticari ve evsel nerji verimliliğine yönelik farkındalık yaratma ve bilgi paylaşımı etkinliği
Bu aksiyon önerisin de ;
6 milyon Avro Belediyeler için;
6 milyon Avro Üniversiteler için;
Toplam 12 milon Avro üniversiteler ve belediyeler ortak projeler hazırlamasıda mükündür.
Eğitimler ve çalışma ziyaretleri aracılığı ile yenilenebilir enerji ve enerji verimliliği insan kaynakları kapasitesinin gelişimi
Fizibilite, denetim ve iyileştirme çalışmaları, sokak aydınlatması ve belediye binalarının ısıtma-soğutma çalışmalrında enerji verimliliğine ilişkin teknik çalışmalar, finansman imkanlarına erişimin desteklenmesi, görünürlük ve farkındalık faliyetleri aracılığı ile binalarda enerji verimliliğinin arttırılması.
Belediyelerde ve belediye hizmetlerinde yenilenebilir enerji kullanımına yönelik fizibilite çalışmaları ve eylem panları, yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından elektrik üretimine yönelik plot proje faliyetleri ile belediyelerde yenilenebilir enerji kullanımının arttırılması.
Enerji verimliliği ve yenilenebilir enerji konularında yapacağımız çalışmaların neticesi bizim milli enerji kaynağımız olacaktır.
Sonuç
En pahalı enerji boşa giden enerjidir.
Bu dönüşüm sadece teknoloji ve para ile ilgili değildir. Aynı zamanda kültürel bir dönüşümdür.
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