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Copy of Strategic Reading Instruction: Priorities and Possibilities to Build Adolescent Literacy in Middle-Level Classrooms

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Jill Adams

on 6 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Strategic Reading Instruction: Priorities and Possibilities to Build Adolescent Literacy in Middle-Level Classrooms

Strategic Reading Instruction:
Priorities and Possibilities to Build
Adolescent Literacy

Building Readers
Reading Motivation
Decades of careful research have elucidated a number of distinct factors which influence students’ motivation to read, for better or worse. These factors are both applicable to most classroom situations and relatively simple to influence:
Choice of what to read
Easy availability of high-interest materials
Teacher read alouds
A regular time in the school day dedicated to reading for pleasure
Positive models of literacy
Opportunity for social interaction around books, and clear, legitimate purpose for reading.
(Stiller, 2005, p. 3)
Strategic Reading Instruction

Dr. Adams just finished...
Any suggestions for my next read?
Informational Texts
Graphic Novels
Nonfiction Graphic Novels
Electronic Options
Reading Aloud
Access to Books
Models of Literacy: What
are you reading?
"This is not a book about teaching a child how to read; it's about teaching a child to want to read."
"The more you read, the better you get, the more better you get, the more you like it; and the more you like it, the more you do it."
Time to Read
The Reading Zone
Used book sales
Get them started--they are more likely to finish
Nature of teen lives and reading time
Grade 4 56% daily
Grade 8 21% daily
Grade 12 6% daily
Home life may not have quiet space or
positive models of literacy
Knowledge of Books
Verse Novels
“Poems can inspire and make us think about what it means to be a member of the human race.”
-Billy Collins, Poetry 180: A Poem a Day for American High Schools Project
A trend in young adult literature: poetic novels:
The ideas of verse novels isn’t new. Karen Hesse’s Out of the Dust won the Newberry in 1998 possibly inspired other authors to write in verse novel form.

Free Verse
Stream of Consciousness Narrative
Narrative with multiple poetic forms
Collections of poems tied together by a narrative thread that focuses as much on poetry as the storyline
-Ernest Bond, Literature and the Young Adult Reader

Very often each section is less than a page in length and only rarely more than two or three pages

The form lends itself to building each section around a single perspective or thought or voice or incident
Joy Alexander, “The Verse-novel: A New Genre”
“I think that’s why poetry appeals so much to teens, because poetry takes you straight to the feelings…And that’s where teenagers live!”
Sonya Sones, Confessions of a Verse Novelist
Activating prior knowledge
Anticipation Guides

During Reading
Post Reading
Book Talks
Reader's Chair
Book Trailers
Connections between mentor text
and indepdendent reading
Skills vs. Strategies:

Strategic reading means that the learner has a conscious, in-the-head plan for comprehending, while skills are used without conscious planning. As students use strategies, they become more and more aware of their reasoning process as they make sense out of print; skills seldom involve this kind of self-awareness.
-Robb 60
In "Adolescent Literacy: A Policy Research Brief" (NCTE 2007), six key practices that promote adolescent literacy through research-based teaching practices are highlighted:
1. Demystify content-specific literary practice
2. Motivate through meaningful choice
3. Engage students with real-world literary practice
4. Affirm multiple literacy
5. Support learner-centered environment
6. Foster social responsibility through multicultural literacy
Stages of Literary
A strategy is only a strategy when someone decides to use it to accomplish seomthing or to solve a problem. -Bomer 134
Determining Importance
Making Inferences
Making Connections
1. Learning to read.
2. Losing oneself in a story.
3. Finding oneself in a story.
4. Venturing beyond themselves.
5. Reading widely.
6. Aesthetic Appreciation.
Deeper Reading

Cognitive and Emotive Aspects
"Reading should not be presented to
a child as a chore, a duty. It should be offered as a gift." -Kate DiCamillo
"Teenagers want to read--if we let them."
-Penny Kittle
What is the current state of reading?
"The story the data tell is simple, consistent, and alarming. Although there has been measurable progress in recent years in reading ability at the elementary school level, all progress appears to halt as children enter their teenage years."

-Diana Gioia, National Endowment for the Arts Annual Report on Reading
Choice of What to Read
Must everyone read the same book?
...Yes...at least from time to time. -Kylene Beers and Robert Probst, Notice and Note: Strategies for Close Reading
Shared reading experience
Community of readers and writers
Their advice? Choose wisely...
"We also know that the most challenging books we read require conversation, guidance, and interaction with others." -Beers and Probst
The problem isn't that we ask all students to read the same book. It's that we expect them to read it in the same way. -Beers and Probst
Choice Options
Literature Circles
Independent Reading
Students needs guidance to choose well.
Book Love by Penny Kittle
CCSS: College and Career Readiness
What are colleges looking for?
Critical thinkers on a variety of texts.
Variety of experiences to draw upon. No one text was listed.
"Nonfiction lets us learn more; fiction lets us be more." -Beers and Probst
Metro State
YAL findings
English dept
College freshman reading expectations:
200-600/pg a week
Studying lit is 1/2 the job
What about kids who
don't do the reading?
-If kids aren't reading in your classroom, nothing important is happening...student development of reading and interpretative abilities required engaged reading.
-William J. Broz, "Not Reading: The 800-pound Mockingbird in the Room," English Journal 100 (5), 2011.

-The fact is that they are behind others, and giving them work that is beyond them is unlikely to help them catch up, and is likely to make them fall still further behind. Kittle, Book Love

-Once children have entered the "swamp" of negative expectations, lowered motivation, and limited practice, it becomes increasingly difficult for them to get back on the road of proficient reading.
-Morgan and Fuchs, 2007, "Is There a Bidirectional Relationship Between Children's Reading Skills and Reading Motivation?", Exceptional Children
Teach students first, then curriculum. In other words, this isn't about 6th grade. It's about readers.
"Never lose sight that our highest priority is to raise students to become lifelong readers. What students are reading in school is important. What they read the rest of their lives is more important." -Kelly Gallagher

Common Core
Common Core State Standards

Kansas State Department of Education:

Timothy Shanahan:

Pathways to the Common Core: Accelerating Achievment, Lucy Calkins, Mary Ehrenworth, and Christopher Lehman, 2012.
2. Augment a unit with a great photograph, infographic or video. Search Times multimedia to find content related to your curriculum. Our Teaching With Infographics collection might also help.

3. Use Times Search to put in keywords (“Macbeth,” “World War II,”) and find articles that connect to your curriculum. You can choose to search just recent editions of the paper, or go back to any date since 1851.

4. Have students respond online to our daily Student Opinion question, each of which links to a recent, high-interest Times article. Since we keep all our questions open, they can also scroll through and choose the ones they like best.

5. Have students start academic research with Times Topics pages. Use our post about 10 ways to use The Times for research to learn more.
1. Have students scan just the front page or homepage daily or weekly in order to:

Take our daily News Quiz, which is based on that day’s print front page.
Choose an article to read in depth, perhaps using our reading log.
Learn vocabulary, keeping track of it here. Reading just the front page of The New York Times every day introduces scores of SAT-level words in context. On June 14, for instance, you could find vibrant, fissure, unscathed, sectarian, volatile, inert, pretext and many more.

Practice making quick connections — to another text, to their own personal life, to something they’re studying in school, or to another trend, controversy or topic they’ve heard or read about. This graphic organizer can help.

Play Front Page Bingo with any day’s Times to find articles that fit criteria like “A story that might benefit from a chart or graph, and why” or “If an alien landed here and read only this page of this paper, what is one conclusion it might draw about human beings?”

There will be a greater need for combinations of texts that can be used together

Need for greater emphasis on text synthesis (how to combine the information from multiple sources into one’s own text or presentation)

Need for greater emphasis on comparative evaluation and analysis

Need for a consideration of non-text sources (e.g., video, experiments)
“The Challenge of Common Core State Standards,” Timothy Shanahan, University of Illinois at Chicago
Past standards have emphasized the reading of single texts: students had to learn how to make sense of a story, article or book (with perhaps an occasional emphasis on multiple texts)

The common core state standards emphasize the interpretation of multiple texts throughout (at all grade levels, and in reading, writing, and oral language)

Students will still have to be able to interpret single texts, but much more extensive emphasis on reading and using multiple texts (about 10% of the ELA standards mention multiple texts)
“The Challenge of Common Core State Standards,” Timothy Shanahan, University of Illinois at Chicago
Questions are text dependent if they can only be answered by reading the text (the evidence must come from the text and not from other sources)

How did Frederick Douglass’ ability to read contribute to his emotional struggle for freedom? Cite examples from the text to support your answer.

After reading Frederick Douglass’ narrative, in what ways does America represent the hope for freedom that lived in the heart of Frederick Douglass?
-David Coleman, Common Core State Standards architect and new College Board President
Nonfiction written for a broad audience on a variety of topics; these rich texts provide arguments and information

These texts inform us about the world and people’s thinking about it.

Models for student thinking in their own writing.

Informational text requires the interpretation of structures, graphics, features, etc. that are not available in literary text
Text that comes in many different formats (books, magazines, handouts, brochures, CD-ROMs, Internet)
Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework
Grade Literary Informational
4 50% 50%
8 45% 55%
12 30% 70%

Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2008). Reading framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Above all….the CCSS is a call for accelerating students’ literacy development.

-Calkins, Ehrenworth, and Lehman, Pathways to the Common Core
The common standards began with college and career readiness standards and then backmapped from there

Reading Areas of Emphasis
Building knowledge through a balance of literary and informational texts.

Reading, writing, and discussion grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational.
Regular practice (“productive struggle”) with complex text and its academic vocabulary.
Dr. Jill Adams, jadams82@msudenveredu
Dr. Gloria Eastman, geastman@msudenver.edu
Jennifer Barstow, barstow@msudenver.edu
Jessica Leifheit, jmleifheit@gmail.com
Kyle Stovall, kstoval2@msudenver.edu
Nathan Ubowski, nathan.ubowski@gmail.com

“The Challenge of Common Core State Standards,” Timothy Shanahan, University of Illinois at Chicago
Reader Response in minimalized

Emphasis on New Criticism (What did the author say? How did the author say it? What does it mean?)

Students will need to engage to a greater extent in deep analysis of the text and its meaning and implications
Greater emphasis on careful reading of a text, weighing of author’s diction, grammar, and organization to make sense of the text
Rereading will play a greater role
Reading Ladders
What are your priorities and possibilities for building literacy in your TWS?
Teaching Informational Text
1. Putz with the book. What did you discover? What do you know for sure? What questions do you have? What text features did you notice?
2. Think aloud. What do you notice about your thinking as your reading?
3. Chunking: When does the text shift? Mark as you go...
4. How can you lead students through reading the textual features?

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