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Reiko Alim

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Chocolate

by Shiella Gallardo History of Chocolate
Classical Nahuatl word xocoltl (meaning "bitter water")

William Bright
- Yucatec Maya word "chokol" meaning hot, and
the Nahuatl "atl" meaning water

Dakin and Wichman Nahuatl term, "chicolatl" from Eastern Nahuatl meaning "beaten drink ETYMOLOGY The Pre-Colombian Experience
1200 B.C — 1492 A.D  Chocolate's European debut16th — 17th centuries Toltecs (900 A.D. )- a new group of peoples emerged to challenge the empire of the Mayans
- Quetzalcoatl- who, descended from heaven on a beam of a morning starcarrying a cocoa tree stolen from paradise
- Cortes, the Spanish conquistador,
- Aztec King Montezuma

The Aztecs: The Gold Standard-  chocolate was reserved for the rich and the nobles.
- A list of Aztec trading prices looked something like this: 
1 small rabbit = 30 cacao beans 
1 turkey egg = 3 cacao beans 
1 large tomato = 1 cacao bean

The aztecs served the chocolate cold and frothy.  First Encounter:
Monkeys were the first to find the cacao plant edible and delectable, not man.
 cacao pod- tasted like apricots or melons. But the beans—or seeds—in the core of the pulp were bitter and seemingly inedible
Olmecs- the first to domesticate the plant and use the beans
The Mayans: the first true chocolate aficionados, treasuring cacao as a restorative, mood-enhancing cure-all.
Popul Vuh- Mayan’s sacred book Christopher Columbus - was the first European to discover cacao beans
(1519)- Hernan Cortes arrived at the great court of the Aztec king, Montezu,
- New World land owner, with plantations in Mexico, Haiti and Trinidad
Royal Wedding: The 17th Century Court of France
- Maria Theresa (Spanish Princess) and King Louis XIV Elixir of life - drink that builds up resistance and fights fatigue.
Some of chocolate’s rave reviews from physicians and medical experts of the 17th Century are:
- “Chocolate, well known, is an invention so noble, that it should be the nourishment of the gods, rather than nectar or ambrosia.” - Joseph Bachot
- “Good for the stomach if drunk in small quantities." - Valverde Turices
- "Chocolate gives comfort." - Hurtado
- "Chocolate is one of the most wholesome and precious drinks that have been discovered to this day." - Stubbe
- "Chocolate nourishes and preserves health entire, yet causes a pleasant and natural sleep and rest." - Hughes
- "Chocolate calms insomnia" - de Blégny
- "Chocolate preserves health and prolongs the lives of old men." - de Quelus Early European Preparation and Equipment
- Europeans added their own touches to the
preparation of the rich brew:
The metate stone slab was often imported from Mexico and used to grind the roasted, shelled cacao beans.
The molinillo was a Spanish wooden whisk or beater, used to make chocolate frothy and create foam, and is still in use today in Mexico and South America. In France it was known as the moussoir. The mancerina was a special saucer that secured the chocolate cup to prevent spills.
The chocolatiere was a French chocolate pot that made it easier to prepare and pour the concoction.
England's Triple Threat
- Coffee, tea and chocolate
- “chocolate houses” - were places where politics were discussed and debated.

Catholic Ecclesiastics
Pope Pius V
Protestant Pilgrims
“Devil’s Food.”   The Age of Reason: the Chocolate Enlightenment
18th Century Chocolate and the Class Struggle
- Still remained a drink primarily for the aristocracy
- Rich colonist’s potion
- Church hierarchy’s drink of choice
Italy's Chocolate Recipes- Chocolate could be had in bars and pastilles, and was found in recipes for main dishes, desserts, ices and more.
Chocolate as an Aphrodisiac
Death by Chocolate
- The mysterious death of Pope Clement XIV
For Adults Only
- Tuscan court physician Dr. Giovanni Batista Felici Factory-Made
Boston apothecaries- the first to use water power to grind the beans and do a very limited form of “mass-production” to satisfy demand.
hydraulic machine- helped grind cacao beans into a paste.
Carl Linneaus- a leading 18th century botanist, created the classification system that assigned Latin designations to all organisms Chocolate Goes Industrial 19th Century Industrial Revolution
Conrad Van Houten- started searching for a better way to remove cocoa butter and make a powdered chocolate
- patented a process that forever changed chocolate production.
- added alkali to the powder to make it easier to mix.
Quakers- The first chocolate industrialists
Joseph Fry - found a way to separate and then blend powdered cocoa with cocoa butter (plus sugar, of course) and make a paste that could be easily molded into a bar.
- “Chocolat Dèlicieux à Manger”- first bar you could eat without cooking or treating.
- largest chocolate manufacturer in the world. Switzerland
Philippe Suchard
- Mélangeur
Henri Nestlé- invented a process to create powdered milk through evaporation
Daniel Peter - combined the powdered milk with chocolate to create the very first milk chocolate bar in 1879.
Rudolphe Lindt
- Conche (Conching a refining step which is critical to making shiny, smooth and creamy chocolate without any graininess.)
1923, The CMA was Established: The Chocolate Manufacturers Association of the United States of America (CMA) was organized in. Composition Potential Health Effects Composition, Nutrients and Health Effects of CHOCOLATE Lourdes
Abiertas Chocolate Liquor
Cocoa beans with their shells removed that have been fermented, roasted and ground until they liquefy. This liquid is made up of cocoa bbutter and cocoa solid s, both are naturally present in the bean Cocoa Butter
Natural fat from the cocoa bean; extra cocoa butter enhances chocolate's flavor and mouthfeel Sugar Lecithin
An emulsifier, often made from soy, that makes the ingredients blend together Vanilla or Other Flavor Nutrients Found in Chocolates Fat - Cocoa beans contain approximately 50% fat

Vitamin A, B1, B3, C, E and Pantothenic Acid

Essential minerals, including magnesium, calsium, iron, zinc, copper, potassium, manganese, carbohydrates and protein. Chromium is an important trace mineral that helps balance blood sugar. Nearly 80% of Filipino are deficient in this trace mineral.

Anandamide is an endorphin that the human body naturally produces after exercise. Anandamide is known as the "bliss chemical" because it is released in your brain when you're feeling great

Theobromine: Cacao usually contains about 1% theobromine. Theobromine is an effective anti-bacterial substance ans kills primary bacteria that causes cavities Antioxidants - Cocoa beans contain polyphenols(similr to those found in wine) with antioxidants properties which are health beneficial. These compounds are called FLAVONOIDS and include catechins, epicatechins and procyandins. The antioxidant flavinoids are found in the nonfat portions of the cocoa bean. The flavinoids also reduce the blood's ability to clot and thus reduces the risk of stroke and heart attacks

Nitric oxide - Maintenance of heal the pressure promotes blood flow and relaxation Reduces the risk of heart disease and cancer.
Boosts one's appetite, but does not cause weight gain,
Eating moderate amounts of chocolates makes one live almost a year longer
It acts as pain-relievers The end... Thank You! Tempering
Under very controlled conditions, the chocolate is now brought through several heating and cooling cycles to ensure the cocoa butter fats crystalize in exactly the right way. This results in chocolate with a very uniform and glossy texture and with a very clean "snap" when broken. Blending and Refining
The chocolate liquor not diverted for pressing is now mixed, according to the manufacturer's unique formulas, with other ingredients such as additional cocoa butter, sugar and vanilla. The mixture is then sent through a series of refining rollers which smooth the texture.

This is where the chocolate is made uniquely into dark chocolate. As long as no milk is added to the chocolate liquor at this point, the result will be dark chocolate. If milk is actually addes, you'll get milk chocolate. And if the ingredients list includes cocoa butter, but no chocolate liquor, then you'll get white chocolate. Harvesting Cocoa
Cocoa beans grow in pods that sprout off of the trunk and branhes of cocoa trees. The pods are about te size of a football. The pods start out green and turn orange when they are ripe. When the pods are ripe, harvesters travel through the coca orchards with machetes and hack the pods gently off of the trees. Conching
To develop a uniform desire flavor and to further smooth the texture, the chocolate is next processed for several hours by continuous mixing, kneading, agitating, aerating, massaging in conching machines (which originally resembled conch sea shells) Fermentation
This combination of beans and pulp is left to ferment for several days. The fermentation process provides the beans with their distinct flavor and gives them a darker brown color. Process of
Chocolate Making Drying Process
After Fermentation, the cocoa seeds must be dried before they can be scooped into sacks and shipped to chocolate manufacturers. Farmers simply spread the fermented seeds on trays and leave them in the sun to dry. The drying process usually takes about a week and results in seeds that are about half of their original weight. Roasting and Winnowing
The first thing that chocolate manufacturers do with cocoa beans is roast them. This develops the color and flavor of the beans into what our modern palates expect from fine chocolate. The outer shell of the beans id removed, and the inner cocoa bean meat is broken into small pieces called "cocoa nibs"

The roasting process makes the shell of the cocoa brittle and cocoa nibs pass through a series of sieves, which strain and sort the nibs according to size in a process called "winnowing" Milling Cocoa Nibs
At this point in the chocolate making process the ibs are milled: crushed and ground into thick, rich paste. This process produces enough heat from friction to melt the nibs into what is known as chocolate liquor (which simply means "liquid", there is no alcohol). Pressing the Liquor
Some of the chocolate liquor may be pressed at this point, removing much of the cocoa butter and resulting in a dry cocoa presscake. This presscake can be further ground into cocoa powder Thank you for
listening :D Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is transformed into important stress-protective neurotransmitters such as serotonin and melatonin.Tryptophan is alse heat sensitive and therefore it is absent in conventionally-processed chocolate

Serotonin is the primary neurotransmitter in the human body, similar in its chemistry to tryptophan and melatonin. Serotonin helps build up your "stress defense shield" Chocolate Types and Varieties Jomari F. Canilao Cocoa Powder
This unsweetened powder is pulverized, partially defatted chocolate liquor. Cocoa powder gives an intense chocolate taste and is available in “Dutch-processed” (alkalized) or natural varieties. Natural cocoa powder is light brown, with a strong, pronounced chocolate flavor. It is slightly acidic, so it is best to use natural cocoa powder in recipes calling for baking soda. Alkalized cocoa powder is darker in color, less acidic, and has a milder chocolate taste. Alkalized cocoa powder is recommended for recipes that call for baking powder. Milk Chocolate
In addition to containing cocoa butter and chocolate liquor, milk chocolate contains either condensed milk (most European varieties) or dry milk solids. Milk chocolate must contain at least 10% chocolate liquor (in the United States), 3.39% butterfat, and 12% milk solids. Milk chocolates are typically much sweeter than dark chocolate, and have a lighter color and a less pronounced chocolate taste. Milk chocolate is more difficult to temper properly and more prone to overheating. Sweet Dark Chocolate
is “dark chocolate” in the sense that it does not contain milk solids, but it still has a high percentage of sugar and is much sweeter than other types of dark chocolate. Many brands of sweet dark chocolate have only 20-40% cocoa solids. Gianduja chocolate
Gianduja is the name given to a European style of chocolate made from chocolate and nut paste. Hazelnut paste is most common, but gianduja can also be made with almond paste. It comes in milk or dark chocolate varieties. Gianduja chocolate can be used as a flavoring or as a substitute for milk or dark chocolate. At room temperature it is soft enough to be rolled or cut, but is too soft to use for molding chocolates. Unsweetened chocolate
This is pure chocolate liquor, composed solely of ground cocoa beans. Although it looks and smells like chocolate, it has a bitter taste and is not meant for consumption on its own—it is best used in cooking, when it can be combined with sugar to make it more palatable. Because cocoa beans contain equal amounts of cocoa butter and cocoa solids, unsweetened chocolate lends a deep, rich chocolate flavor to baked goods. Unsweetened chocolate is the base ingredient in all other forms of chocolate, except white chocolate. "Candy Coating" chocolate
These products are cheaper than most chocolates, and do not contain significant amounts of chocolate liquor; thus, they do not have a strong chocolate flavor or an appealing mouthfeel. However, they have excellent melting and molding properties, and thus are often used in candymaking for dipping or enrobing, since they do not require tempering and can withstand high ambient temperatures. Be careful to never mix candy coating with real chocolate, as the fats are not compatible and the resulting candy will be unattractive and discolored. Bittersweet chocolate
Chocolate, as defined by the FDA, that contains at least 35% cocoa solids. Most bittersweet bars contain at least 50% chocolate liquor, with some bars pushing 70-80% chocolate liquor. This chocolate often has a deeper, more bitter flavor than sweet dark or semi-sweet bars. However, the amount of sugar in the chocolate is not regulated, so one manufacturer’s “bittersweet” bar may taste sweeter than another’s “semi-sweet” bar. White chocolate
White chocolate gets its name from the cocoa butter it contains, but does not contain chocolate liquor or any other cocoa products. As a result, it has no pronounced chocolate taste, but commonly tastes like vanilla or other added flavorings. By law, white chocolate must contain a minimum 20% cocoa butter, 14% milk solids, and a maximum of 55% sugar. There are some “white chocolate” products available that contain vegetable fats instead of cocoa butter—these should be avoided from a taste standpoint, as they contain no cocoa products at all, and are not technically white chocolate. Dark Chocolate
Chocolate that contains chocolate liquor, sugar, cocoa butter, vanialla anf leicithin (an emulsifier). There are no milk solids added in dark chocolate. The cocoa content of commercial dark chocolate bars can range from 30% (sweet dark) to 70%-80% for extremely dark bars. Bittersweet chocolate and semi-sweet chocolate also falls into the "dark chocolate" category Semi-Sweet Chocolate
Chocolate contains at least 35% cocoa solids, and is generally assumed to be darker than sweet dark chocolate, but sweeter than bittersweet. However, the lack of regulations regarding sugar content means that these classifications are relative and not consistent across brands Couverture chocolate
Used primarily by professional bakers or confectioners, this chocolate contains a very high percent (at least 30%) of cocoa butter, as well as a high percentage of chocolate liquor. This high ratio makes it expensive, but it also means that the resulting chocolate is smooth and melts quickly and evenly. Couverture chocolate is the preferred chocolate for tempering and enrobing candies. It comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, and can be purchased online or at well-stocked cake decorating stores. Thank you!! thanks for listening Group Won't Cause Acne, scientists have concluded that pure chocolate won't cause acne. However the milk in milk chocolate might, so enjoy the benefits of dark chocolate. Africa produces over 66% of the world's supply of chocolate Largest Box
The box which stands 16.5 meters tall, 5.04 meters long and 11.5 feet wide, weighed in 2000 kg in Leicester Square, Central London Biggest Structure
Made in California, USA. Sculputure models an ancient Mayan temple and weighs over 8000 kg. Swiss consumes the most chocolates at 22lbs of chocolates per year Biggest Bar
The 12000 pound chocolate slab stands 3ft high and 21ft long. Used 1,200lbs of almonds, 5500lbs of sugar, 2000lbs of milk powder, 1700lbs of cocoa butter and 1400lbs of chocolate liquor. Made in Chicago, USA First Cacao Tree
found growing in the Amazon River basin and Colombian Andes. Joseph Fry
from Bristol, England made the first eating chocolate in 1848. Misspelled
Chocolate is derived from Cocoa Beans. It was Cacao originally, but became Cocoa as a result of misspelling. Facts About
Chocolates Alec Sandra Alim Cocoa Beans
A cocoa pod contains an average of about 42 beans. It takes up to 270 cocoa beans to make a pound of chocolate Chocolate contains an ingredients called "Theobromine" which can be toxic to a dog's central nervous system and cardiac muscles. Labeling
Some manufacturers provide the percentage of chocolate in a finished chocolate confection as a label quoting percentage of "cocoa" or "cacao". It should be noted that this refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids. Chocolates that are organic or fair trade certified carry labels accordingly.

In the United States, some large chocolate manufacturers lobbied the federal government to permit confections containing cheaperhydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". In June 2007, as a response to consumer concern after the proposed change, the FDA reiterated "Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of the product, will remain a principal component of standardized chocolate." Manufacturers
A Hershey chocolate bar. The Hershey Company is one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world.
Many chocolate manufacturers have created products from chocolate bars to fudge, hoping to attract more consumers with each creation. Hershey and Mars have become the largest manufacturers in the world. Other large manufacturers include Nestlé, Kraft Foods and Lindt.

The Hershey Company, known for their Hershey bar, Hershey's Kisses and Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, is the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. Mars, Incorporated, one of the largest privately owned U.S. corporations, is a worldwide manufacturer of confectionery and other food products, with US$21 billion in annual sales in 2006. Mars is known for Mars Bar, Milky Way, M&M's, Twix and Snickers, as well as other confectionery items, such Skittles. Food conglomerates Nestlé SA and Kraft Foods both have chocolate brands. Nestlé acquired Rowntree's in 1988 and now market chocolates under their own brand, including Smarties and Kit Kat; Kraft Foods through its 1990 acquisition of Jacobs Suchard, now own Milka and Suchard. In February 2010, Kraft also acquired British-based Cadbury plc, the world's largest confectionery manufacturer. Cadbury is well known for its Dairy Milk range and Creme Egg; Fry's, Trebor Basset, the fair-trade brand Green & Black's also belong to the group.

The chocolate industry, a steadily growing, $50 billion-a-year worldwide business centered on the sale and consumption of chocolate, is prevalent on five out of seven continents. Big Chocolate, as it is also called, is essentially an oligopoly between major international chocolate companies in Europe and the U.S. These U.S. companies, such as Mars and Hershey’s alone, generate $13 billion a year in chocolate sales and account for two-thirds of U.S. manufacturers.[ However, Europe accounts for 45% of the world's chocolate revenue. Influences of chocolate
Chocolate is one of the most popular holiday gifts. The International Chocolate Day is observed on September 13. On Valentine's Day, a box of chocolates is traditional, usually presented with flowers and a greeting card. It may be given on other holidays, and birthdays. At Easter, chocolate eggs are traditional. This is a confectionery made primarily of chocolate, and can either be solid, hollow, or filled with other sweets or fondant. Many confectioners make holiday-specific chocolate candies, usually variants of their standard fare. Books and film
Chocolate has been the center of several successful book and film adaptations. In 1964, Roald Dahl published a children's novel titledCharlie and the Chocolate Factory. The novel centers on a poor boy named Charlie Bucket who takes a tour through the greatest chocolate factory in the world, owned by Willy Wonka. Two film adaptations of the novel were produced. The first was Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, a 1971 film which later became a cult classic. Thirty-four years later, a second film adaptation was produced, titled Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. The 2005 film was very well received by critics and was one of the highest grossing films that year, earning over US$470,000,000 worldwide. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was also recognized at the 78th Academy Awards, where it was nominated for Best Costume Design for Gabriella Pesucci. Like Water for Chocolate (Como agua para chocolate), a 1989 love story by novelist Laura Esquivel, was adapted to film in 1992. The plot incorporates magical realism with Mexican cuisine, and the title is a double entendre in its native language, referring both to a recipe for hot chocolate and to an idiom that is a metaphor for sexual arousal. The film earned 11 Ariel Awards from the Academia Mexicana de Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas, including Best Picture.

Chocolat, a 1999 novel by Joanne Harris, tells the story of Vianne Rocher, a young mother, whose confections change the lives of the townspeople. The 2000 film adaptation, Chocolat, also proved successful, grossing over US$150,000,000 worldwide,[92] and receivingAcademy Award and Golden Globe nominations for Best Picture, Best Actress, and Best Original Score.
Chocolate also features in a large number of other literary works, often in a role central to the plot such as JoAnna Carl's Chocoholic Mysteries series and Toby Moore's Death by Chocolate. Labeling, Manufacturers and Brand
and Influences of Chocolates Jake
Mariano Factors Affecting the Quality of the Chocolate Proper Storing Temperature Moisture Storage 2. To freeze the chocolate, place it in an airtight container, and do not remove it from its container until it has been brought up to room temperature, to prevent condensation from forming on the chocolate. 3. These water droplets will prevent the chocolate from melting smoothly and might affect the texture of the melted chocolate. Before eating or using as an ingredient for cooking, let the chocolate return to room temperature and unwrap it only after it has thawed so as to prevent sugar bloom. WHY PROPER STORAGE
IS NEEDED? Chocolate, when not stored properly, can lose its richness and flavor and may become stale. It is very sensitive to humidity and temperature. Proper storage and packing is needed to preserve its freshness and wonderful taste and aroma The perfect environment would be 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit, Have low humidity (less than 50 percent), be out of direct sunlight, and away from any other foods or substances with strong odors that could be absorbed by the chocolate. Chocolate should be stored in a slightly cool, dry, dark place. 1. If you live in an extremely warm area and do not have air conditioning, you may need to keep your chocolate in the refrigerator or freezer to prevent it from melting 4. Frequent exposure to high temperatures can cause the cocoa butter in chocolate to rise to the surface, creating “bloom,” an unpleasant cloudy gray color. 5. Blooming effects do not affect the chocolate’s taste and edibility however , it still retains its flavor. The chocolate only becomes visually and texturally unappealing but it can still be eaten and enjoyed, as well as used for baking. Dark chocolate that has had a blooming effect can be melted and remolded to restore its original texture and appearance High temperatures can cause the chocolate to have what is called :

Fat bloom effect -this is when the oil or fat from the cocoa butter rises to the surface.

Do not refrigerate or freeze the chocolate unless you intend to preserve it well after the indicated expiration date. Refrigerating or freezing the chocolate will cause it to discolor and develop an unwanted effect called

Sugar bloom - This happens when the chocolate absorbs too much moisture from the low temperature in the refrigerator and develops a whitish discoloration, a result of the sugar crystals rising to the surface. Temperature fluctuations can ruin the chocolate’s nice presentation, texture, and color. Charlene Hernandez Thank You! Thank You
for Listening The People's Treat
20th and 21st Centuries  Milton Hershey
brought European-style chocolate-making methods to the U.S., combined them with some American inventiveness, and launched a new era in chocolate

began producing milk chocolate in bars, wafers and other shapes in 1900

the first to put nuts into candy bars and developing special heat-resistant chocolate that allowed wartime troops to carry chocolate bars that wouldn’t melt into warm climates.

World War I
20-40 pound blocks of American chocolate were shipped overseas to field bases
World War II
U.S. Army had more specific requirements for its chocolate bar rations

Field Ration D
Vince Isaac
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