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Transcript of Mesopotamia
He ended the rebellion
He forced everyone to move far away to the Zagros Mountains
he thought the spirit would break
Their new empire covers from Egypt to the Persian Golf
The scribes were the ones to keep the records and were mainly the only ones who could read them too
They had to go to school to read, write, memorize, and study cuneiform
They used it for 2,000 years and it spread from neighborhood to neighborhood
Scientists still haven't figured out some symbols
Then the Phoenicians created our alphabet because they agreed that cuneiform was to complicated
By: Mickenzie Fisher, Cassie Kingsley, Kaitlyn Otten
September 10, 2015
The Land Between Two Rivers
Mesopotamia includes of Iraq and parts of Syria and Turkey.
Mesopotamia is greek, meaning "the land between two rivers".
In the plains lay the region, Sumer making up the southern half of Mesopotamia.
Sumer was 10,000 sq miles.
The worlds first cities arose in Sumer.
Very hot and dry, very little rain.
heat drove people to develop many new ways of life.
heavy spring floods created spongy marshes
needed flood control
flooding spread rich soils
They created an irrigation system with dams, gates, and canals.
made man-made lakes/ponds for excess water
Sumerians were great builders of civilization.
Chapter 6 Lesson 1
The Remarkable Sumerians
The Sumerian City-states
3000 B.C. had 12 city-states.
People would exchange goods and labor for food
Mesopotamia is a region
There's no central power or boundary lines
Each city-state was independent
Religion and government were combined at the time
Collected taxes in form of grain, animals, and other farm products and prayed and sacrificed to please the Sumerian gods
A Typical City-state
Builders of Civilization
Irrigation was the key
People had to work together to keep things moving
They needed managers or administrators
The Sumerians built temples to store food and to please the gods
to build the temple they used stones, wood, and metals
Sumer lacked these items so they traded with merchants
For these items they exchanged wheat, barley, wool, and dairy products.
Keeping track of business
Sumerians needed to keep track of business deals so they used different shaped stones. They'd put the stone in a wet clay bowl and then seal it up so no one could change it. But now no one could see it at all. this may have led to the invention of writing.
The First Kings
The warriors were killing defenseless villagers
The nomads fought for the land
It was hard having land and water
Used leaders and walls to keep invaders out
Kings ruled city-states
They believed their kings that were given by the gods
Priests were the ones to take care of the kings
The Sumerian Religion
Four main gods ran the world
They had other lower gods but they didn't take care of nature
Every city-state had a god
The Sumerians gave the gods everything they needed because they didn't want to get punished
Everyone made something to give to the gods such as sweets, jewelry, and gifts.
Their gods were just considered like humans
The Beginnings of Writing
The Sumerians are the ones who brought us writing and invented it
They wrote on clay tablets which eventually led to writing because they kept records with those tablets
They decided to use pictographs for trading
Then they started drawing symbols that were related to the sound of the symbol.
Sargon of Akkad
In 2500 B.C. their symbols simplified
It was called cuneiform because the symbols were wedged shaped
The writing contained about 600 symbols
They used cuneiform for almost everything
Sargon's family were herders on Sumer
Sargon killed the king and took the throne
founded new capital "Akkad" on Euphrates
conquered all of Sumer's city-states
created first empire
ruled until 2279 B.C. (55 years)
2250 B.C. Gutians invaded Akkad
Sargon's empire collapsed
Shamshi-Adad was a strong Assyrian ruler
conquered Lebanon (had very mineral rich mountains)
overthrew King of Mari and gave throne to ShamshiAdad's son
held lands together by trade and force
but feared attacks from
Kish was built out of mud bricks.
The houses were small and windowless
the cities had bigger houses for the rich
Had large public buildings
2700 B.C. temples and royal palaces were built
Kish had a thriving market place, merchants and farmers came with wares
Foreigners came from far places with products not available in Mesopotamia
This was a busy and exciting place, very important part of civilization.
Set out to gain control of neighboring kingdoms
neighbors attacked Hammurabi's kingdom
he defeated invaders
Soon ruled all of Mesopotamia
24 great cities
maintained strong central government
Anyone could use laws and they wouldn't be punished
He tried to make only necessary laws, and not make them against each other
His code is what brought/helped us have our language today
The Next 750 Years
The Hittites came and conquered Mesopotamia
Babylonia had peace because kassites took over
The Phoenicians created the alphabet
Jews developed belief in one god
Assyrian empire became more powerful than ever before
Chapter 6 Lesson 4
A New Assyrian Empire
900B.C.Assyrians power swung
Assyrians had a huge empire
They almost captured every city-state
The king Adad-Nirari gathered all of the riches of all the city-states
They traveled as far to the Mediterranean Sea
The New King
A New Babylonian Empire
Chaldeans took over Assyria in 612 B.C.
Chaldeans ruled their empire in the capital of Babylonia which is Babylon
Their trading network was great
A Babylon Emperor
The new ruler is Nebuchadnezzar
He captured a few of the major cities
He had to work hard to keep his army up and send them to the west
Jews didn't listen so they got tortured
Th Jews were so sad they had to play instruments and sing songs about the lord
He had so much wealth that he rebuilt almost everything and built new walls
Most of the scribes became astronomers and scientists
Babylon had excelled in all most every subject
The Babylonians made our 60 minutes
They also excelled in mathematics quite well
The Fall of Babylonia
They are just like the Assyrians they have so many enemies that they could go down anytime now
Nabonidus he was basically the worst king he gloated about winning wars
He wasn't always there for help
He made Babylonia have a lot of enemies
They finally got conquered by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus built the biggest empire that anyone knows of