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Ancient Egypt

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Alyssa Alforque

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

Hieroglyphics developed 3200 BC Upper and Lower Egypt unified 3100 BC First stone pyramid built 2700 BC Pyramids of Giza built 2540 BC King Userkaf builds temple for sun god Ra 2487 BC Capitol moves from Memphis to Herakleopolis in northern Middle Egypt 2160 BC Egypt reunified again 2000 BC Earliest evidence of diagnostic medicine 1700 BC Civil War 1069 BC The Persians invaded and ruled Egypt 525-404 BC Amytravios retakes Egypt from Persia 404 -399 BC 31 BC Romans take over Egypt to the ancient times of... Egypt Lets travel back... back to when... Farmers and slaves received no sign of respect and when pharaohs... received everything. Back to when... the
first pyramid was built and when dead people... were to be mummified We're here to teach you all about it.. Ancient Egyptian Life Basic Needs Religion In Ancient Egypt Fashion Women and Men Pharaohs Life in Royalty TRISHA All Egyptian clothing was created to stay cool in the hot climates. Clothing was usually made from plants fibers like linen. Only the very rich wore furs of animals. pharaohs wore leopard skin on there shoulders and a lions tale on there belt. Embalming helped create perfume and make up. Perfume was very expensive because it was used so much. Nails were painted with Henna. Eye shadow was made from crushing Malachite. Ochre was applied to lips and cheeks to give redness to them. These products were mixed with animal fat to help preserve it also contained lead. Mummification Death in Egypt Wigs were worn by both genders male and female and were made from human sheep and horse hair. woman sometimes put goblets filled with perfume in there wigs. Egyptians usually wore no shoes but on certain occasions they would ware leather sandals. Normal men wore a kind of skirt and a thin shirt. Woman wore a dress the length of the dress told what class she is. Children didn't ware clothes in till they were six yet they still wore lots of jewelry. Jewelery was common for men and woman. Egyptians were very skilled at making jewelery. Egyptians usually wore rings,bracelets,necklaces,earrings,and neck collars. Rich Egyptians usually made beads out of gold silver and other precious gems to put on their jewelery. Climate Egypt only has two seasons summer and winter. the usual temperature in the summer is 95 degrees and 48 in the winter.And would rain a lot. egyptians basic needs A long time ago, Ancient Egypt was a civilization ruled by pharaohs. Their basic needs are food, houses and water those three things are the most important
basic needs of the ancient egyptians A pharaoh is an ancient Egypt ruler. They began to rule in approximately 3000 B.C., when upper and lower Egypt were united. Pyramids House of Eternity The pyramids are one of the oldest of The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the only wonder still standing today. The ancient Egyptians built more than 90 pyramids in Egypt, all located on the West Bank of the Nile River. Egyptian pyramids were built to serve as tombs for the pharaohs and their queen. After a ruler die, his or her body was treated and wrapped to preserve it as a mummy. The pyramids, where the mummy was placed, provided a place for the king to pass into the afterlife. The very first pyramid built in ancient Egypt was the 'Step Pyramid'. The Step Pyramid was built at Saqqara for the pharaoh Djoser. It was made by building several 'steps' or layers of stone on top of each other. Egyptian Animals Egyptian Animals In ancient Egypt multiple Gods we're worshiped. Not all Gods were worshiped through out all of Egypt. Some Gods
were only worshiped in a city. Here are some examples of the multiple Gods that are
worshiped through out Egypt. HORUS Sky God The oldest god in religious history. ANUBIS Mummification God A part of mummification and the journey to the after life. OSIRIS Ruler Of The Under World Also the god of vegetation, earth, and death egyptian rain deer a rain deer
was used for collecting foods People in ancient Egypt believed that whatever they did happened because of the Gods and Goddesses. First evidence of people living near the Nile Delta 5000 BC 4400 - 4000 BC an egyptian
camel. Barbarian culture practiced agriculture and domesticated sheep and goats an egyptian camel
is also like an egyptian
rain deer it helps
egyptians collect foods
it can also be a transportation. 4000 - 3500 BC People in ancient Egypt would gift
the Gods of the sun, moon, earth, and water. To make sure they would still keep the gift of the Nile. Amratian Society of Upper Egypt - first signs of hierarchical civilization egyptian houses (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr All people in ancient Egypt had a belief in the after life. The Egyptians believed that to enter the after life they had to be judged by Osiris first to see if they were worthy enough. Journey To The Afterlife There are two MAJOR steps to the journey to
the after life. The Weighing of the Heart and.... Ra's Journey God of Wisdom THOTH Thoth is part of the journey to the after life. The first step to mummification is embalming The body is first sent to a tent called "ibu" also known as "a place of purification" where the embalmers wash the body with palm wine and water from the Nile. They then make a cut in the left side of the body and remove most of the internal organs. They are taken out because they are the first to decompose. The intestines,liver,stomach, and lungs were washed and put in natron to dry them out. The heart was left because it was thought to hold the feelings and intelligence of the person and was needed to go to the afterlife. They used a long hook to take the brain out through the nostril. They then covered the body with notran to dry the body out. 40 days later they unwrapped the body and washed the body again with water from the Nile, then they put oil on the body to keep it elastic They then stuffed the body with dry materials like leaves, sawdust, and linen to look life like and put the organs back in the body They then put good smelling oils on the body and now was ready to be wrapped in linen The Wrapping of the Body They first wrapped the he They first wrapped the head and neck then the fingers and toe were wrapped individually Then the arms and legs were wrapped and between layers they put amulets on them to protect them on their journey to the underworld While being wrapped a priest read spells to ward off evil spirits and help the person make it to the afterlife The arms and legs were tied together and a scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is put in between the hands They then put more linen around the body and put liquid resin that help glue the linen together Now they put a piece of cloth around the body and a picture of Osiris is paint on Finally they put another large cloth around the body and is attached with linen strips from top to bottom. They then put painted wood on top of the mummy and is then lowered into the first coffin and then a second coffin. Then a funeral is held for the deceased. Lastly a ritual is performed called the opening of the Mouth which allowed the dead to eat and drink again. Then the coffin was put in a stone sarcophagus in the tomb. Furnishings, clothing and valuable things were organized in the tomb for the dead. Now the dead was ready for his journey to the underworld. Grand Gallery Queen's
Chamber King's
Chamber WARNING First the weighing of the heart this is a very disturbing part of the presentation.... You arrive at the scale. Anubis is ready to weigh your heart.

Anubis weighs your heart to see if you are honest enough
to pass the gates to the heaven.

Your heart is on one side of the scale and an ostrich feather is on the other. If your heart weighs more than the feather it means
you aren't truthful enough to pass the gates of Heaven.

But if your heart weighs less than the feather it means you
are truthful enough to pass through. Thoth would be writing down your results There is a consequence if you do not pass.. If you fail the weighing of the heart a half dog and half crocodile would be t the gates to the afterlife and would eat you. Now Ra's journey is next After the weighing of the heart you would have to wait for Ra the sun god. He travels by boat to wake up the mummies to take them to the afterlife. one of the most important basic need
of the egyptians. Ra has to pass through the sandbanks of Apophis a serpent of chaos. Apophis tries to wreck Ra's boat while other gods ride with Ra to defend the boat from Apophis. Ra then appears at the tomb and shines a light on the darkness and speaks the magic words from the Book of Gates. It is important for Ra to speak these words or the mummy couldn't get out of the tomb to the afterlife. then the mummy throws the wrappings off and Ra takes them to the Afterlife Without it the ancient egyptians would be left in the heat of the sun. Water The ancient egyptians got their water from the Nile river egyptian foods What did the ancient egyptians eat and drink? Well, they usually ate bread in most meals egyptian bread While the rich usually ate meat like beef Ascending Passage Descending Passage This Passageway is the beginning of the long and cramped journey up to the King's Chamber. It is only about one meter wide and a little over one meter tall. 1.6 m At the top of the passage you'll arrive at the Grand Gallery.
Unfinished
Chamber The pyramids are built entirely of limestone. After passing through the Ascending Passage, you can finally stand up in the colossal Grand Gallery. From the bottom of the gallery you may also choose to go into the Queen's Chamber. The ceiling in this passageway is almost eleven meters high. The Grand Gallery continues to the entrance of the King's Chamber. You climb into a narrow shaft that leads directly to the King’s Chamber This is the chamber where King Khufu was buried. The room is now completely empty except for the granite sarcophagus in the corner. Sarcophagus is a large stone or wood box in which coffins were placed for burial. Unfortunately, Khufu's mummy and all of his funerary goods for the next life were taken out of the pyramid by ancient tomb robbers after Khufu was buried there. The Descending Passageway takes you on a 90 meters long journey below the pyramid, down to the Unfinished Chamber. This room under the pyramid is a mystery. Some people believe that this room was left unfinished for religious reasons. Egyptologists believe that it was originally meant to be the burial chamber of Khufu, but Khufu suddenly decided he wanted his burial chamber to be higher in the pyramid, and ordered the workers to stop. Finally, some people believe that this room was built to fool tomb robbers and lead them away from the real burial chamber. Made from emmer
and barley wheat Egyptian Beer Hieroglyphics The writing of the egyptians Made from barley and was drank it often for each meal. Vegetables and Fruits Garlic was a common siding to bread and beer and also has lettuce, celery, and some cucumber The Great Pyramid of Khufu is by far the most famous Pyramid in Egypt, the biggest, tallest, and most intact. After its construction it became one of the “Seven Wonders Of The World”, and today, it is the only one of them remaining. For a period of 4300 years, the Pyramid was also the tallest building on earth, until the French built the Eiffel Tower in 1889 to take that accolade. It stands 147 metres high and its estimated weight is about 6,500,000 tonnes. This chamber is located under the King’s Chamber and is smaller. Its name has falsely led people into believing that this room once held the mummy of a queen. Khufu's queens had their own separate pyramids built nearby. This chamber may have been built as a room to hold Khufu's funerary objects. What is a Sarcophagus? Passage to Queen's Chamber This passage stretches between the Grand Gallery and the Queen's Chamber. The pyramids were built by teams of workers, but they were not slaves. They were ordered to do the work for the Pharaoh. The workers were well treated. They had a place to live at (known as the workers village), food, drinks and time off to rest. Many of the builders were farmers who came to help complete structure every year when the river Nile flooded their farms. Who built the pyramids? The entrance of the Pyramid is located at the northern side, the same as almost every Pyramid in Egypt. RA Sun God Part of the journey to the
afterlife The workers used over 2,000,000 large limestone blocks to get the pyramids built. Social Hierarchy Egyptians did not call their ruler a pharaoh before 1554 B.C. during the 18th dynasty. Before that, pharaoh meant "Great House" in Egyptian and referred to the palace of the king. It was later added to the pharaoh's name as part of his title. The pharaohs were considered gods by their people, and held a high position in everyone’s life. The Pharaoh represented the gods, and took extra responsibility in honoring them. The Nile River The Nile River is the longest river in the world. Pharaoh's Roles and Responsibilities The Pharaoh had many roles in his kingdom. He made laws and was the chief of the temples. He was an army leader and controlled trade expeditions. He supervised the water system and stored the grain. He defended the land and even collected taxes. The Nile River was what the Egyptians survived on.
It was like their life line. The Nile River is about 4,160 miles long The Ancient Egyptians believed in an afterlife, so it was very important to them to protect the bodies of their pharaohs. In order to keep the pharaoh's body safe, they built pyramids. There is very dry land in Egypt. The Nile
created mud and soil which the ancient egyptians could
use to plant on. The ancient Egyptian people were grouped in a hierarchical system Hieroglyphics were used from 3000 BC to 400 AD.
They were the egyptians way of writing. The english alphabet only has 26 characters as the
egyptian alphabet has 2000. Each hieroglyphic represents a common object found in ancient Egypt. Hierarchy system is a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority. Hieroglyphics can represent a sound
or an idea represented by an object. Here is a hieroglyphics chart: The Pharaoh was at the top of the social hierarchy. Next to him, the most powerful officers were the Viziers . Under them was the high priests, followed by the nobles, who were responsible for making laws and keeping order . At the bottom of the hierarchy were the scribes, the artisans and unskilled workers, the slaves, farmers and laborers. During the yearly flood of the Nile it would flood the crops helping them grow. It is very sandy with very few trees.
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