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Fermentation

Is the conversion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol.
by

Andrea Laffitte

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of Fermentation

What is fermentation Chemical Process USES Fermentation in
every day life Eclogic Impact Reducing negative impact The earliest uses of fermentationfermentationfermentation were most ly to create alcoholic beverages such as mead, wine, and beer. These beverages may have been created as far back as 7,000 BCE in parts of the Middle East. The fermentationfermentationfermentation of foods such as milk and various vegetables probably happened sometime a few thousand years later, in both the Middle East and China. While the general principle of fermentationfermentationfermentation is the same across all of these drinks and foods, the precise methods of achieving it, and the end results, differ Bibliography Introduction Fermentation is a chemical process, which is very important in our everyday life, it is important to know about this chemical process because it is very common in our society and many food or beverages we ingest are produced thanks to this chemical process called fermentation. Fermentation has been present in earth since ancient times; the earliest uses of fermentation were most likely to create alcoholic beverages such as mead, wine, and beer. These beverages may have been created as far back as 7,000 BC in parts of the Middle East. The fermentation of foods such as milk and various vegetables probably happened sometime a few thousand years later, in both the Middle East and China. While the general principle of fermentation is the same across all of these drinks and foods, the precise methods of achieving it and the end results differ. In this essay we will go deeper into the process of fermentation and we will include its uses and the importance in our everyday life, also we will include in detail the process chemists have to undergo to achieve this important chemical process. Throughout the paper we will explain and give examples to simplify the complicated process and make it more understandable. We will explain in detail everything related to fermentation and include various examples of it. Fermentation in our body Fermentation in food Beer Wine fermentation can refer to the use of yeast to change sugar into alcohol or the use of bacteria to create lactic acid in certain foods. Fermentation occurs naturally in many different foods given the right conditions, and humans have intentionally made use of it for many thousands of years. When referring to fermentation in food, we are describing the change of a sugar into ethanol and this science is named zymology. French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first known zymologist, when in 1854 he connected yeast to fermentation.
The process of fermentation in wine is the function that turns grape juice into an alcohol. During fermentation yeast interacts with sugars in the juice to create ethanol, commonly known as ethyl alcohol, and carbon dioxide, as a by-product. In winemaking the temperature and speed of fermentation is an important consideration as well as the levels of oxygen present in the start of the fermentation.
The process of making beer is similar but differs according to the ingredients it conforms; it needs a grain such as barley, wheat, or rye, to produce the beer. The process starts by germinating and drying it. You continue by pouring some hot water into the process for it to start the fermentation of the material. You add some yeast, which later on you need to be pulping into a mash to convert it into a carbon dioxide and alcohol. After weeks of fermentation and a period of conditioning, the beer is ready to be consumed.
In our body fermentation takes places as well as in food, in this case fermentation complements glycolysis and makes it possible for ATP to be continually produced in the absence of oxygen. By oxidizing the NADH produced in glycolysis, fermentation regenerates NAD+, which can take part in glycolysis once again to produce more ATP. Conclusion As we mentioned before, fermentation is a process that has a very important impact in our daily life. Why? Because not only makes our life less complicated, but also helps our body in many ways such as: enriching food substrates with proteins, some amino acids and vitamins, also by preserving for a considerate amount of time the food we ingest and by enriching our diet with a variety of flavors, aromas and textures in the foods we eat. Also in what refers to our body, the chemical process it undergoes helps our body to produce and assimilate ATPs by producing lactate as a end product which serves as a mobile form of nutrient energy or other impact this has is that in skeletal muscles ferment glucose lactates during exercise and serves as a fuel source as well as brain neurons. Most importantly helps NADH oxidize into NAD+. Fermentation is present every day in our lives, it is so close to us that it can occur in our own body and we don’t even notice, this is what is so fascinating about this topic, that is essential in our life and many of the people in the classroom don’t even know it exists in their own body. As we mentioned before fermentation has many uses within its many processes, these uses vary according to the type of process we refer, as we described previously there are many types of chemical processes such as wine, beer, food and body fermentation. Within these processes these are several of the most important uses:
•Elimination of antinutrients
•A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements
•Antibiotics and other drugs can be prepared by fermentation if no other commercially efficient method is available.
•Preservation of food
•Production of ATP
Fermentation is a process that could have either good or bad impact in the ecology. This is because there are many variables and examples that could be said to prove that this process should be clearly seen in different ways. FERMENTATION While looking for a meaning of fermentation, we came along with many different definitions and different processes the most simple meaning we could gave to this process was that in a general sense, fermentation is the conversion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol. Even though fermentation has very little negative impact on our lives, it’s important to give some advice on how to reduce it. For example one of the problems is that people does not fermentate correctly the foods they make, causing several diseases. Clear example of what we mentioned before is that in cheese, some microbial persist in staying in the cheese, making our body to react badly when processing it as a normal food. We really had a hard time finding bad impact of fermentation in our body and the second one was that, as we mentioned before people that make their own fermentation don’t keep track of time since they started the process and the food becomes rotten and again harms our organism and it can cause death. Our proposal to these two factors is that people should be aware that every time they try to preserve a food through fermentation they should keep track of time and be very careful of what people might do. After several research, we can conclude that fermentation is very useful in our daily life. Fermentation makes the foods easier to digest and the nutrients easier to assimilate. In effect, much of the work of digestion is done for each person, since it doesn't use heat, fermentation also retains enzymes, vitamins, and other nutrients that are usually destroyed by food processing.
Talking biologically,fermentatio allows cells to obtain energy from molecules (example: glucose) anaerobically. Glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose, is a form of fermentation.
We saw that fermentation has a negative effect caused by the people who don´t know how to fermentate correctly, but it can be fixed by having someone who realy knows how to preserve the food. Fermentation has several uses such as the preservation of food, productoin of ATP, "meat processing." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 26 Apr. 2010 <http://0-search.eb.com.millenium.itesm.mx/eb/article-50371>.

"vegetable processing." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 26 Apr. 2010 <http://0-search.eb.com.millenium.itesm.mx/eb/article-50278>.

"tea." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Web. 26 Apr. 2010 <http://0-search.eb.com.millenium.itesm.mx/eb/article-65377>.
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