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Solids, Liquids and Gases

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by

Meredith Legg

on 22 March 2011

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Transcript of Solids, Liquids and Gases

Solids Liquids Gases What is a particle? Newton had a thought:
If you kept cutting an apple again and again surely you'd get to a point where you cannot cut any longer.
These smallest units of matter (that can't be cut) are called particles. How big is a particle? Teeny Tiny! 45 billion billion in a 1 cubic centimetre of air Newton had a thought:
If you kept cutting an apple again and again surely you'd get to a point where you cannot cut any longer.
These smallest units of matter (that can't be cut) are called particles. Matter What is it? The term matter relates to any substance that has mass and occupies space.
All Physical objects are composed of matter, in the form of particles.
There are 3 states of matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
All matter (and therefore every physical object) exists in one of these three states. What have Particles got to do with it? EVERYTHING!!! It is the interaction of particles with each other that determines the state of a substance
Particularly:
the forces of attraction between them
and the energy the particles posess The greater the force of attraction, the closer the particles will be and the less space between them The more energy the particles posess, the faster they move Particles in solids are
Closely packed
Have strong forces between them
Have restricted movement
Have minimal space between them Particles in liquids are
Not very closely held
Have less force between them
Have some movement
Have more space between them
Particles in gases are
Far apart
Have weak attraction between them
Have free movement
Have more space between them Have fixed volume and fixed shape and are non compressible Are able to be compressed.
Have a fixed volume but take the shape of the container they are in Are easily compressible. Have no fixed volume or shape Solids How do we change between states? Melting Step 3
Eventually, at the melting point, the attractive forces are too weak to hold the particles in the structure together in an ordered way and so the solid melts. Step 1
Heat a solid Step 2
When a solid is heated the particles vibrate more strongly as they gain kinetic energy and the attractive forces between the particles are weakened Evaporation and Boiling Heating particles gain kinetic energy and move faster
The particles with the highest kinetic energy can 'escape' from the attractive forces of the other liquid particles
The particles lose any order and become completely free to form a gas or vapour Freezing On cooling, liquid particles lose kinetic energy and so can become more strongly attended to each other.
Eventually at the freezing point the forces of attraction are sufficient to remove any remaining freedom and the particles come together to form the ordered solid arrangement. Sublimation This is when a solid, on heating, directly changes into a gas without melting
Also a gas, upon cooling, directly changes to a solid without condensing to a liquid Condensing On cooling, gas particles lose kinetic energy and eventually become attracted together to form a liquid.
There is an increase in order as the particles are much closer together and can form clumps of particles References
Brown 2010, States of Matter part 1, http://www.docbrown.info/page03/3_52states.htm, accessed 12/9/10
Board of Studies 2003, Science years 7-10 Syllabus, Board of Studies NSW
The particle Theory, http://www.clickandlearn.org/Gr9_Sci/Particle_Theory.htm, accessed 12/9/10
C005 - Solids, Liquids, Gas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnBoQe2rsgo
Solids, Liquids, Gas - they might be Giants http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btGu9FWSPtc
States of Matter http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-KvoVzukHo This introduces the term


Looking at large objects, density relates to how heavy an object is per its unit volume.

So why do different things have different densities?

The closer the particles are packed together the greater the density! Time for you to make a hypothesis!
Which will be more dense: a solid, a liquid or a gas? DENSITY Look at the Particles! PRESSURE If the volume of a sealed container is kept constant and the gas inside is heated to a higher temperature, the gas pressure increases As particles are heated they gain kinetic energy and on average move faster
The particles then hit the walls of the container with a greater force of impact thus increasing the pressure
There is also a greater frequency of particle collisons which increase the pressure Lets go Back and Bring it all together now! References
Brown 2010, States of Matter part 1, http://www.docbrown.info/page03/3_52states.htm, accessed 12/9/10
Board of Studies 2003, Science years 7-10 Syllabus, Board of Studies NSW
The particle Theory, http://www.clickandlearn.org/Gr9_Sci/Particle_Theory.htm, accessed 12/9/10
C005 - Solids, Liquids, Gas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnBoQe2rsgo
Solids, Liquids, Gas - they might be Giants http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btGu9FWSPtc
States of Matter http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-KvoVzukHo Particles in solids are:
Closely packed
Have a strong force of attraction between them
Have constricted movement (vibrate) The particle model proposes that
all matter is made of tiny, invisible particles and
explains the different states in terms of how these particles move and stick together
Full transcript