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Transcript of Educational Philosophies
Problems are viewed holistically
Futuristic thinking (utopian thinking)
The goal of education should be to emphasize the need for change
Students should be out in the real world
Technology is valuable in solving problems. George Counts (1889-1974) o Recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating a new social order. Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) o Brameld was especially influenced by George Counts. Writing in "The Social Frontier," a journal of educational and political critique, he argued for a radical philosophy that focused analysis on weaknesses in the social, economic, and political structure.
o He recognized the potential of either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty
or the use technology and human compassion to create a beneficential society. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) o He believed that humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others.
o He saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world. Problem solving
Planning for change Assessment Formative evaluation
Ongoing feedback Brameld, T. (1965). The use of explosive ideas in education: Culture, class, and evolution. New York: The New Press.
Bussler, D., O'Neil, F.L., Raffel, A., Stone, F.A., & Thomas, T.M. (1997). Introducing educational reconstruction: The philosophy and practice of transforming society through education. San Francisco, CA: Caddo Gap Press.
Counts, G. S. (1978). Dare the school build a new social order? Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Inquiry-Based Learning - YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Retrieved 2011, from http://tinyurl.com/7o8dtb4
Inquiry-Based Learning - YouTube. (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Retrieved 2011, from http://youtu.be/sLQPXd8BiIA
Prezi, The Zooming Presentation Editor. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://prezi.com
Samuels, S.J. & Farstrup, A.E. (2011). What research has to say about reading instruction. (4th ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Taylor, K.A. (2011). EDCI 813 living syllabus, Philosophy of American Education.
Webb D. L. , Arlene M., & Forbis J. (2007) Foundations of American Education, 5e. by Pearson Education, Inc By Bakor Kamal *Introducing Educational Reconstruction
"The learner may 'acquire' culture through education; however, rather than playing a passive role only, that is, 'acquiring' from someone else, the learner also 'inquires,' which has a more active connotation. Through this dynamic inquiry process, the learner may begin to modify the culture" (Bussler, 1997, p. 61)
*From Kate’s book facilitation In a word Perennialism: emphasis on values
Essentialism: emphasis on knowledge
Reconstructionism: emphasis on societal reform
Progressivism: emphasis on experiences Learner The student is capable of initiating and adapting to change, and thus is a critical agent in social change Curriculum Democratic
Curriculum centers around social, economic, and political issues.
Recognize hidden curriculum
Explore controversial issues Teacher Agent of change; shaper of a new society
Transformational leader School schools should practice critical pedagogy and practice as it provides students with critical thinking tools Leading proponents Classroom Management Conflict resolution
Community building “We must build community in order to create a climate of openness and intellectual rigor” (hooks, 1994, p. 40) Perennialism Teacher-centered
Based upon universal knowledge and cherished values of society.
Education should be universal, leading students to discover truth and make logical choices accordingly
Rooted in realism Leading proponents Mortimer Adler (1902–2001) Advocate for the perennialistic view
He saw no need in vocational and/or elective classes in school Robert M. Hutchins (1899-1977) Learner Passive listeners
They have an intellect and a soul Curriculum Core curriculum consists of social studies, mathematics, the sciences, music, and art.
Study classic literature and arts to discover enduring truth and beauty Teacher Authority figure; disseminator of the truth
Teacher is the fountain of all knowledge School School is an intellectual agency with a primary purpose to develop human reasoning Instructional Method Direct instruction
Virtually no electives and very few textbooks. Classroom Management Time on task
Precision and order
Emphasizing control and student respect for the teacher Assessment Objective exams and essay exams
Memory work Essentialism Schools are responsible for only the most immediately needed instruction
Emphasis on a traditional education
Education seen as a mastery of essential facts and skills
Rooted in idealism and realism Leading proponents Dr. Theodore Sizer (1932-2009) He advocate the need for students to master a common core of info and skills
Encourages schools to strip away nonessentials and focus on having students “use their minds well” Learner Students can become culturally literate and develop disciplined minds. Curriculum Moral development and character training
Curriculum should be cumulative Teacher Skilled communicator
Essentialists maintain that classrooms should be oriented around the teacher, who ideally serves as an intellectual and moral role model for the students. School Schools should teach culture and traditions
Train the intellect
Teach knowledge and skills Instructional Method Lecture
Socratic dialogue Classroom Management Character training and discipline
Respect for others Assessment Standardized achievement tests
Performance-based competency tests Progressivism Protests against an emphasis on universal truth
Student-centered educational process
Roots in Pragmatism
Emphasis on how to think Leading proponents John Dewey y (1859–1952) Insisted that ideas must always be tested by experiment Charles S. Pierce y (1839–1914) Emphasize that the meaning and value of ideas could be found only in the ideas’ practical results Learner Students learn by doing
They can make classroom rules
They are able to test and evaluate ideas
They can work together to solve problems
They can set their own objectives for learning Curriculum Curriculum is student-centered; should grow from child’s own interests, free from imposition of traditional curriculum Teacher The teacher is seen as more of a guide than an all-knowing sage. School Encourage cooperation
Schools should focus on a democratic society
Develop problem-solving and decision-making skills
School must take on the task of improving the people way of life Instructional Method Project method
Cooperative group activities Classroom Management Students actively participate in planning for and implementing classroom management and discipline. Assessment Formative evaluation