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MLA In text

MLA In-text reference
by

Camila Gutierrez

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of MLA In text

In-text Citations MLA Author Named in a Signal Phrase Two or More Works by the Same Author The material being cited is introduced with a signal phrase which includes the author's name. Author Unknown Use the title in a signal phrase or a short form of it in the parentheses

Books: italicized
Articles: in quotation marks The title of the work is mentioned in the signal phrase or included in the parentheses. Author named in parentheses Page Number Unknown Two or three authors According to a 2001 survey of human resources managers by the American Management Association, more than three quarters of the responding companies reported disciplining employees for "misuse or personal use of office telecommunications equipment" (2). Authors with the Same Last Name Corporate author Name all of them or include only the first name followed by "et al." Four or More Authors Frederick Lane reports that employers do not necessarily have to use software to monitor how their employees use the Web: employers can “use a hidden video camera pointed at an employee’s monitor” and even position a camera ”so that a number of monitors [can] be viewed at the same time” (147). Combination of signal phrases and parenthetical references.

A signal phrase introduces information taken from a source.

The parenthetical reference normally includes at least the page number. The period follows the parenthetical citation.

When a quotation ends with ?/!, follow this format:
"...?" (8). A popular keystroke logging program operates invisibly on workers’ computers yet provides supervisors with details of the workers’ online activities (“Automatically”). The American Management Association and ePolicy Institute have tracked employers’ practices in monitoring employees’ e-mail use. The groups’ 2003 survey found that one-third of companies had a policy of keeping and reviewing employees’ e-mail messages (“2003 E-mail” 2); in 2005, more than 55% of companies engaged in e-mail monitoring (“2005 Electronic” 1). A 2004 survey found that 20% of employers responding had employees’ e-mail “subpoenaed in the course of a lawsuit or regulatory investigation,” up 7% from the previous year (Amer. Management Assn. and ePolicy Inst., “2004 Workplace” 1). The study was extended for two years, and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al. 35). Include the author's first name in the signal phrase or first initial in the parentheses. Estimates of the frequency with which employers monitor employees’ use of the Internet each day vary widely (A. Jones 15). Put the author's last name in parentheses along with the page number. Companies can monitor employees' every keystroke without legal penalty, but they may have to combat low morale as result (Lane 129). You may omit the page number if a work lacks of page numbers, as is the case with many Web sources. As a 2005 study by Salary.com and America Online indicates, the internet ranked as the top choice among employees for ways of wasting time on the job; it beat talking with co-workers --the second most popular method -- by a margin of nearly two to one (Frauenheim). If a source has numbered paragraphs, sections, or screens, use "par." (or "pars."), "sec." (or "secs."), or "screen" (or "screens") in the parentheses: (Smith, par. 5). Name the authors in a signal phrase, or include their last names in the parenthetical reference:
(Kizza and Ssanyu 2) Kizza and Ssanyu note that "employee monitoring is a dependable, capable, and very affordable process of electronically or otherwise recording all employee activities at work and also increasingly outside the workplace" (2). When three authors are named in the parentheses, separate the names with commas: (Alton, Davies and Rice 56). Name the corporate author either in the signal phrase or in the parentheses. When a government agency is treated as the author, you must name it in your in-text citation. The United States Department of Transportation provides nationwide statistics on traffic fatalities. A major reason families succeeded in the 1950s was that "federal assistance programs were much more generous and widespread than they are today." (Coontz, p. 62). Correct the following citation: A major reason families succeeded in the 1950s was that "federal assistance programs were much more generous and widespread than they are today" (Coontz 62). Don’t assume that a parenthetical citation is needed only for direct (word-for-word) quotations. You must also include a citation when you are paraphrasing (i.e. rephrasing in your own words) a specific idea from an author. (Roth par 8) Correct the following citation Don’t assume that a parenthetical citation is needed only for direct (word-for-word) quotations. You must also include a citation when you are paraphrasing (i.e. rephrasing in your own words) a specific idea from an author (Roth, par. 8). Smith, Yang, and Moore (76) argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States . Smith, Moore and Yang argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). Whitman worked as a printer in New York City until a devastating fire in the printing district demolished the industry(Academy of American Poets). Whitman worked as a printer in New York City until a devastating fire in the printing district demolished the industry. (Academy of american poets) Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process. (Wordsworth 263) Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Correct the following citation: Hypertextuality makes text borderless as it "redefines not only beginning and endings of the text but also its borders—its sides, as it were" (Landow Hypertext 2.0 79).

ARTICLE Hypertextuality makes text borderless as it "redefines not only beginning and endings of the text but also its borders—its sides, as it were" (Landow, "Hypertext 2.0" 79). Correct the following citation: When the author's name and a short title must be given in the parentheses, separate them with a comma. Cogdill, Katzerbach, Smith and Landow argue that "making backchannel overtly available for study would require making its presence and content visible and its content persist, affecting the nature of the backchannel and raising social and ethical issues (109)." Correct the following citation: Cogdill et al. argue that "making backchannel overtly available for study would require making its presence and content visible and its content persist, affecting the nature of the backchannel and raising social and ethical issues" (109). T. Peters talks about a company that facilitates employees' renewal by shutting down its factory for several hours per week while teams work through readings on current business topics (57). Tom Peters talks about a company that facilitates employees' renewal by shutting down its factory for several hours per week while teams work through readings on current business topics (57). Correct the following citation: Correct the following: Correct the following: Name: Tom
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