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Language & Technology Dr Atkins Liverpool College
Transcript of Language & Technology Dr Atkins Liverpool College
Technological advances have blurred the line between speech and writing in the modern media. And one more thing...
Technology has contributed to the continuing phenomena that is informalisation. Graphology important - text often minimal - images important (iconic and symbolic images used)
Typography - sans serif fonts common
Non standard orthography can mimic prosody or personalise brands/organisations
Hyperlinks - (often imperatives) create interactive dimension to text (like speech)
Denotation and connotation possible.
Multimodal texts - speech (videos) and writing present on many websites
Interaction with website parallels spoken/personal interaction
Lots of minor sentences - often hyperlinks.
Minimum formal punctuation - so as not to clutter a page that will be viewed on many platforms
Metatalk - talk that draws attention to the act of talking itself. "We've been talking for ages now"
Phatic speech acts - speech with a socila function
Valediction - an item that acts as a farewell: 'good byeee' Texts and other digital forms of communication - Facebook, Twitter etc.. Websites Telephone Features of 'Textspeak'
1. Grapheme repetition: nooooo!
2. Abbreviations - in a mo.
3. Initialism: brb
4. Number/letter homophones: c u l8r.
5. Acronymy - lol
6.Phonetic/non standard spelling: coz I wanna.
7. - :-)
8. Lots of minor and simple sentences
9. Non-standard punctuation
10. Non-standard capitalisation: WHAT! (mimics prosodic features)
11. Slang/taboo Chatrooms Writing that is like speech in that it can be near spontaneous - (synchronous)
Writing that is semi permanent - depends on when moderators choose to delete messages.
Lots of subject specific lexis and jargon
Trolls - break with Grice's Maxims intentionally disrupting politeness norms. TV 1 Multimodal - speech & writing
Formality levels dependent on audience and purpose.
TV language has the support of images, paralinguistics etc.
Non Standard language features
Interaction possible - voting on X Factor etc.
Taboo after watershed.
Conversational features - presenters address viewing audience
Potentially very large audience for much programming - although the advent of digital TV has led to much more choice for viewers than during the 'analogue' 5 channel period.
Informalisation apparent in much programming
Much planning underpinning spoken language (reality TV?) RADIO Broad audience
Regional accents/dialects common with local radio
Lots of scripted talk
More description of events necessary as they cannot be seen by the audience
Affected by external influences - weather reports, newsflash
Variety of purposes present in single shows
Minimal textual element as a result of DAB/RDS/Website
Multimodal - sounds effects
Dialogue (phone in [spontaneous speech]) or monologue
Dominant speaker needs to manage conversations effectively.
opening channel of communication
identification may be necessary - no face to face contact
Greeting sequence initiating a shared space
How are you? sequence
Strengthening the shared space
pre-closing and closing sequence acts as a signal that one speaker wishes to close the conversation Schegloff's discourse structure: WRITTEN LANGUAGE
1. Standard grammar
4. Less context dependent or even independent
5. Wide range of formality levels
6. Only low level of prosody (sound variation) possible
7. Can be carefully planned
8. Writing unaffected by extraneous thoughts
9. Not tied to a specific time
10. Audience almost always absent
11. No immediate interaction between writer and reader
12. No control over prosody - pace, pitch, intonation, power of delivery
1. Non-Standard grammar
2. No punctuation
3. Transient (Passing with time; transitory)
4. More context dependent
5. Smaller range of formality levels
6. High level of prosody possible
7. Much more spontaneity
8. Speech usually affected by external influences
9. Tied to the present
10. Audience almost always present
11. Phatic content
12. Control of over pace, pitch, intonation, power of delivery greatly affects meanings Textspeak: the variety of informal written language used specifically when communicating via electronic media – (for example, Twitter, Facebook, mobile phones, MSN, Skype chat) Vowel-less words/vowel omission:Pls, txt, frm, dnt, ppl, bk, yr
Homophonic representation/number homophones: 2 (instead of to, two, too), 4 (instead of for), m8, 2day, gr8, l8er
Letter homophones: U (instead of you), R (instead of are), C (instead of see)
Phonetic spelling: Cos, gud, ere, gawjess, cud, iluvyou
InitialismOmg, wtf, brb, imfao, tmi, pmsl, fml
Acronymy: Lol, rofl
Alternative spelling: Cuz, wud
Grapheme/ letter repetition: Wooooo, nicccceeee Three main codes in television and radio broadcasting:
IMAGE: images – limited to television (internet radio is perhaps changing this)
LANGUAGE: speech and writing
SYMBOL: colour, props, music, sound effects, prosodic feature.
Mode: TV often multimodal (speech and writing). Includes writing and speech. Radio – spoken (sometimes spontaneously)
Manner (informal or formal): dependent on audience
Status: the presumed sophistication of the audience which then impacts on the language used.
Topics: carefully managed and often pre-scripted. Live interview may include stock phrases ‘I’m afraid I’ll have to stop you there’.
Structure: some programmes have a predefined pattern which opens and closes the programme. In quiz shows turn taking and adjacency pairs will structure programme.
Prosodic features: a full range of prosodic features used by radio and television presenters. Some people see TV and radio presenters as the custodians of ‘good’ English.
Accents and dialects Common on regional news and TV shows. Newsreaders often use RP.
Non-fluency features: Edited out of recorded programmes. Broadcasters are professional speakers and consequently speech is generally fluent. Scripts vs spontaneous speech. Graphology – the visual aspects of a text (images, colour, space etc.)
Typography – fonts and writing systems. Bold, italics, underlining etc.
Serif fonts - most formal
Sans serif fonts less formal
Handwriting – lowest formality TV 2 Texts and other digital forms of communication - Facebook, Twitter etc..