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Design History 1850-1875

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Sara Almudhaf

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Design History 1850-1875

Harper’s Bazar
The Modernization
of Paris
The rebuilding of Paris by Napoleon and Haussmann set a new standard for urban planning. Haussman introduced broad boulevards, large parks, and grand train stations to the new modern city. The cutting of the new
north-south axis raised much of Paris’s medieval core, but also was one of Haussmann’s most controversial projects (McKay 792-794).
Paris 1860
Image of Laurent & DeBerny,
Specimen decorative typefaces
(Eskilson 47).
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine – Began era of the pictorial magazine with “serialized English fiction and numerous woodcut illustrations created for each issue by the art staff” (Meggs 171).
The Crystal Palace
Crystal Palace in London was the site of Industrial Fair which demonstrated the Industrial Power of Britain. “Six million visitors reviewed the products of thirteen thousand exhibitors. This event is commonly called ‘The Crystal Palace Exhibition’ after the 75,000 square meter steel and glass prefabricated exhibition hall that remains a landmark in architectural design” (Meggs 162).
Image of Crystal Palace 1851 (Eskilson 36)
Emergence of
Craft Unions
The idea of one national union was not appealing thus craft unions developed (McKay 741).
1851 – The New York Daily Times was begun by politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and banker George Jones the name was later changed to the New York Times in 1857.
The New York
Daily Times
Wet-plate process
A wet-plate process was announced by the English sculptor Frederick Archer in the March issue of the Chemist he described the process which was, “...by candlelight in a darkroom, a clear viscous liquid called collodion was sensitized with iodine compounds, poured over a glass plate, immersed in a silver-nitrate bath, and exposed and developed in the camera while still wet. Photographers thoughout the world adopted Archer’s process. Because he did not patent his process, and it enabled much shorter exposure times... (Meggs 157).
Napoleon III
of France
Louis Napoleon ruled France, considered great with economic conditions but struggled politically and socially (McKay 824).
Currier & Ives
Nathaniel Currier & Jim Ives meet and form business which is later to be known as “Currier & Ives” one of the most famous lithographic art reproduction firms in the United States…they “produced a variety of sentimental imagery as well as commercial advertising” only to go bankrupt shortly after the turn of the century (Meggs 167).
1870 Litograph of Currier & Ives “The Great West” (Eskilson 39).
The Crimean War
Russia v. Ottoman Turkey, Britain, France. Russia claimed rights of protection over the Holy Land and Orthodox Christians in the Balkans which led to tensions with Ottoman Turkey. War ended with the Congress of Paris - Russia gave up its claims to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire, the shore of the Black Sea was neutralized and the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia was recognized (Mckay 827). The war ended in 1856.
Balaclava Harbor, Crimean War, 1855 Albumen print (Rosenblum 181).
Perry and Japan
Commodore Perry sailed arrived Japan 1854 establishes trade with Japan. Mathew Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay and demanded foreign trade agreement, Japan agreed but not happy, felt forced by show of power by the United States (McKay 853).
Germ Theory
Development of Germ Theory – and Louis Pasteur initial Pasteurization experiments conducted (McKay 783).
Fink Through
Truss Bridge
Finks truss design offered solution to carry trains over long spans of water
- first Iron Truss Bridge design patented.
Photolithography Technique
Alphonse Louis Poltevin patents photolithography technique
(Drucker & McVarish 148).
1st full page Newspaper Ad
John Wanamaker’s Philadelphia Department Store commissions 1st full page Newspaper Ad (Drucker & McVarish 148).
The Barbizon
Catalog of Design
Owen Jones published The Grammar of Ornament – a catalog of design possibilities from Eastern and Western cultures, “savage tribes, and natural forms became the nineteenth century designer’s bible of ornament” (Meggs 162).
Norwegian romantic
Spanish Eclecticism
Barbizon School
Symbolism (arts)
1857-late 19c.
Hague School
Great Rebellion
in India
Emigrant Arrivals
1850 – 1870
The British East India Co. had conquered India in 1848 and Indians attempted to oust the foreign dominance. The Indians were defeated and British rule became direct rule where it remained for close to 100 years (McKay 869).
“Ballous’Pictorial 12/31/1857 shows pictorial newspapers in U.S. success – this particular one shows a wood engraving of “Emigrant Arrival” created by Winslow Homer one of the most famous 19th century American painters
(Eskilson 30).
Harper’s Weekly
The Atlantic Monthly
American political magazine published from 1857 – 1916 “functioned as a news magazine.”
(Meggs 171).
One of the first mass circulation magazines produced in the United States. (Meggs 171).
Nadar takes first aerial photographs
(Drucker & McVarish 148).
Nadar (Rosenblum 81).
Prang's Boston Lithography Firm open for one year (Meggs 141).
Suez Canal begun
Unification of Italy
Work toward unification began and able to achieve unification by 1870 (McKay TimeLine).
Heyday of
Documentary photography helped illustrators capture current events, “wood engravings drawn from photographs became prevalent in mass communications” (Meggs 157).
Whereby art prints, posters, covers, and book and magazine illustrations were given color. John H. Bufford was a master draftsman “whose crayon-style images achieved a remarkable realism” (Meggs 163). The process involved lithographic stones which when properly used produced a “convincing tonal drawing in which the integration of the image and lettering became a unified design” (Meggs 164).

The Hague School is the name given to a group of artists who lived and worked in The Hague between 1860 and 1890.
Their work was heavily influenced by the realist painters of the French Barbizon school
. The painters of the Hague school generally made use of relatively somber colors, which is why the Hague School is sometimes called the Gray School.
After the great periods of Dutch art in the Golden Age of the 17th century, there were economic and political problems which diminished activity in art. The fine arts in the Netherlands enjoyed a revival around 1830, a time now referred to as the Romantic period in Dutch painting. The style was an imitation of the great 17th-century artists. The most widely accepted paintings of this period were landscapes and paintings which reflected national history.
1860 Mathew Brady’s Abraham Lincoln
Salted Paper Print (Eskilson 31).
Mathew Brady's
Abraham Lincoln

Morris, Marshall,
Faulker and

William Morris established the art-decorating firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulker and Company (known as leader of the Arts and Crafts Movement) Morris was a brilliant 2-dimensional pattern designer, creating over 500 pattern designs for wallpapers, textiles, carpets, and tapestries. The firm reorganized in 1875 as Morris and Company with Morris as the sole owner (Meggs 179).
Morris’s work (Eskilson 51).
United States
Civil War
North v. South – slavery becomes primary issue as Southern plantations rely on slavery as way of life and desire to continue whereas the Industrialized North wants slavery abolished.

Mathew Brady and his photographic assistants Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan documented the American Civil War. “After the Civil War, photography became an important documentary and communications tool in the exploration of new territory and the opening of the American West” (Meggs 161).
Civil War Rosenblum 187 and 191.
The Great

In the United States the Emancipation Proclamation calls for the end of slavery in the United States (Drucker & McVarish 148).
1851 The first world's fair, called the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, opens in London. Its chief proponent is Albert (1819–1861), prince consort of Victoria, who envisions the fair as "a living picture of the point of development at which the whole of mankind has arrived … and a new starting point from which all nations will be able to direct their further exertions." The Great Exhibition, as it is popularly known, is housed in Hyde Park in the massive Crystal Palace (damaged by fire in 1936, and demolished in 1941) designed by Sir Joseph Paxton (1803–1865). Paxton describes the structure as "the simplest—the merest mechanical building that could be made"; composed entirely of glass and cast iron, it is in itself a monument to the achievements of the Industrial Revolution, and its sheer vastness astounds visitors to the exhibition. Along with industrial exhibits are diverse examples of industrial and applied arts, musical instruments, textiles, and jewelry—from the Indian Koh-i-noor diamond in its original setting, to the gilt bronze and malachite desk set by British jeweler Charles Asprey (MMA 1982.88.1–8). No paintings are shown, as they are not considered products of mechanical achievement. Works purchased from the Great Exhibition form the nucleus of the South Kensington Museum, established in 1852 by Henry Cole (1808–1882) and later renamed the Victoria and Albert Museum.c
Political Ad

Political Wood Engraving (Eskilson 44).
Slavery Abolished
Lincoln Assassinated
13th Amendment Abolishes Slavery in the United States.

Abraham Lincoln Assassinated.

Civil War Ends (Drucker & McVarsh 148).

Barbizon school
of painters were part of an art movement towards
in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time.

In 1824 the Salon de Paris exhibited works of
John Constable
His rural scenes influenced some of the younger artists of the time, moving them to abandon formalism and to draw inspiration directly from nature. Natural scenes became the subjects of their paintings rather than mere backdrops to dramatic events. During the Revolutions of 1848 artists gathered at Barbizon to follow Constable’s ideas, making nature the subject of their paintings. The French landscape became a major theme of the Barbizon painters.
The design firm of Morris

1861 William Morris (1834–1896) founds the design firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., employing the artists Ford Madox Brown (1821–1893), Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828–1882), and Philip Webb (1831–1915) as designers. In a prospectus, Morris describes his designers as artists who "have felt more than most people the want of some one place, where they could either obtain or get produced work of a genuine and beautiful character." For the firm, they design and produce mural decorations, architectural carvings, stained glass (see MMA 1998.231), metalwork, jewelry, furniture, embroidered items, and other decorative objects. A painstaking attention to detail, reliance on organic motifs, and a taste for medieval and legendary subjects distinguish handcrafted works by the firm from the mass-produced household objects made widely available by industrial progress.
The London International Exhibition
Bismarck and the
Austro Prussian War
Austro –Prussian War – Seven weeks war between Prussia and Austria; Prussians used railroads and new needle gun to overrun the Austrians (McKay 821).
1862 The London International Exhibition is held in South Kensington, giving greater prominence to the fine and applied arts than in the first Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition features a display of Japanese crafts and artifacts, as well as a Medieval Court, for which the firm of William Morris (1834–1896) furnishes many objects, including a painted cabinet now in the Metropolitan Museum (26.54).

Norwegian romantic nationalism was a movement in Norway between 1840 and 1867 in art, literature, and popular culture that
emphasized the aesthetics of Norwegian nature and the uniqueness of the Norwegian national identity

After more than 400 years as a Danish province treated as a cultural
backwater by the absentee government in Copenhagen, the only uniquely Norwegian culture was found among the farmers and peasants in rural districts in Norway; As a result, a number of individuals set out to collect the artifacts of the distinctly Norwegian culture, hoping thereby to preserve and promote a sense of Norwegian identity.
Another of the 1st mass circulation magazines produced in the United States. Is considered one of America’s first fashion magazines (Meggs 171).
The Albert Memorial

United States purchases Alaska from Russia for $7 million (Drucker & McVarish 148).
1863 Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811–1878) designs a memorial to Prince Albert (died 1861). Commissioned by Queen Victoria and completed in 1872, the Albert Memorial, erected in Kensington Gardens, features a larger-than-life bronze statue of the prince seated beneath an immense Gothic tabernacle. Irish sculptor John Henry Foley (1818–1874) executes the sculpture of the prince, shown holding a copy of the catalogue from the Great Exhibition of 1851, as well as Asia, one of four marble groups of the Continents at the corners of the memorial. Henry Hugh Armstead (1828–1905) and John Birnie Philip (1824–1875) contribute a sculptural frieze that runs around its base, depicting 169 figures of the greatest composers, painters, architects, and sculptors from antiquity to the present. Called the Frieze of Parnassus, it is named after the mountain abode of the Muses and the site of the Oracle at Delphi.
Suez Canal
Morris & Co.
1875 William Morris (1834–1896) reorganizes his firm as Morris & Co., with himself as sole proprietor. It is around this time that he begins to design textiles and wall coverings with intricate botanical patterns. In 1890, Morris undertakes his last major business venture: the foundation of Kelmscott Press, which produces fifty-three elaborate handmade books between 1891 and 1898.

Spanish Eclecticism was a movement among Spanish painters. A sensibility of relative renewal dominated the rest of Europe, while in Spain,
Realism and impressionism were slow to take hold
. The movement is also said to
be associated with the idea that models and innovations had run their course

The subject of landscapes gained prominence with Spanish Romanticism until it became almost exclusive around the time of the Belgian painter
Carlos de Haes
. At the same time, a Catalonian tendency toward urban and bourgeois scenes was developing. It eventually culminated in Catalonian Pre-impressionism, which arrived with
Mariano Fortuny
Eduardo Rosales

was credited with creating the tableautin, a diminutive format depicting a comic or pleasant theme mainly intended to adorn the interior of a home.
The Suez Canal was completed in 1869 "...quickly became Britain's all important lifeline to its Asian empire and a busy crossing pointfor the expanding global economy. This picture shows the ship of Edward, Prince of Wales, entering the canal in 1875,when the prince was en route to India" (Palmer 631).
The Exposition Universelle
1855 The Exposition Universelle, including a major art exhibition, is held in Paris with the aim of displaying the social, industrial, and cultural progress in France under Napoleon III. Realist painter Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) submits a monumental canvas, The Painter's Studio: A Real Allegory Summing Up Seven Years of My Artistic Life, to the exposition jury, who reject it. Outraged by the stylistic strictures imposed by the Academy of Fine Arts, Courbet organizes a private exhibition in a tent near the fairground entrance, calling it his Pavilion of Realism. Courbet's radical departure from academic tradition had rocked the art world six years earlier, when he exhibited three pictures—Peasants of Flagey Returning from the Fair, After Dinner at Ornans, and A Burial at Ornans—at the Salon of 1849. These works, depicting the landscape and inhabitants of his rural birthplace, elevate scenes from everyday life to the grand scale formerly reserved for history painting. Courbet's pictures espouse the cry of contemporary critic Charles Baudelaire (1821–1867) in his review of the Salon of 1846 for an art that reflects the "heroism of modern life," and he leads a generation of Realist painters that has as its literary counterpart the circle of Baudelaire, author of Les fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil), and Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880), author of Madame Bovary (both 1857).
The Father of
Haute Couture
John Calvin Moss of New York “pioneered a commercially feasible photoengraving method for translating line artwork into metal letterpress plates. The gradual implementation of photoengraving cut the cost and time required to produce printing blocks and achieved greater fidelity to the original”(Meggs 157).
1858 English dress designer Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895), often regarded as "the father of haute couture," opens a firm in Paris. The House of Worth dominates Parisian fashion through the second half of the nineteenth century.
of Photography
late 1850s
late 1850s The increasing popularity of photography encourages the development of faster printing processes and the circulation of inexpensive types of photographic prints, including the stereograph and the carte-de-visite.
1872 Logo Images “Graphic Complexity and Slogans often embellished Victorian Trademarks”(Meggs 175).
The New-York Exhibition
1853 The New-York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations opens with the commemoration of its central exhibition hall, the Crystal Palace, an iron and glass structure that features displays of manufactured goods and artistic achievement. This first world's fair on U.S. soil is modeled after the 1851 London Crystal Palace.
Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison invents duplex telegraph
(Drucker & McVarish 148).
Cabinet (armoire)
Zanzibar Slave
Zanzibar Slave Market – once the world’s largest slave market closed (Drucker & McVarish 148).
Designer: Fremiet_JoanofArc
When the prototype for this compelling cabinet, now in the collection of the Musée d'Orsay, Paris, was exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in 1867, it received mixed criticism. The cabinetmaker must have been pleased with the controversial piece because he commissioned this second, nearly identical one for himself. The central plaque by the sculptor Emmanuel Frémiet commemorates the military triumph of Merovech (d. 458), leader of the Salian Franks, over Attila and his marauding Huns at the Battle of the Catalaunian Field in 451. In a vivid and unsettling representation, Merovech stands before his troops at the front of the chariot as it passes over the dead body of an opponent.

The American Barbizon School was a group of painters and style partly influenced by the French Barbizon school
, who were noted for their simple, pastoral scenes painted directly from nature. American Barbizon artists concentrated on painting rural landscapes often including peasants or farm animals.

William Morris Hunt
William Morris Hunt
was the first American to work in the Barbizon style as he directly trained with
Jean-François Millet
in 1851-1853. When he left France,
established a studio in Boston and worked in the Barbizon manner, bringing the style to the United States of America.The Barbizon approach was generally not accepted until the 1880s and reached its pinnacle of popularity in the 1890s.
Biscuit box with cover
Designer: ChristopherDresser
The pattern is a variation on a design inspired by frost on a window pane
that Christopher Dresser published in 1873 as a design for stained glass.
It also represents Dresser's "idea of power, energy, force, or vigour" in a
single pattern. The common earthenware material combined with the
silver-plated mounts appealed to Dresser's desire to create affordable yet
well-designed goods for the growing consumer market.

Originally the term applied to works created in the artists’ colony at Pont-Aven which started to emerge in the 1850s and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century.

Many of the artists were inspired by the works of Paul Gauguin who spent extended periods in the area in the late 1880s and early 1890s
. Their work is frequently characterised by the bold use of pure color and their Symbolist choice of subject matter.

Designer : ChristopherDresser
The form of this bowl is reminiscent of early Chinese bronze and ceramic three-legged vessels, while the stylized band
of decoration is derived from Chinese ornamental motifs. The flattened, two-dimensional approach toward
ornamentation echoes the design principles established by Owen Jones in his tome The Grammar of Ornament (1856)
and later adopted by his disciple, Christopher Dresser. The central image is a derivation of the taotie, a decorative
motif found on Chinese Bronze Age vessels. Dresser wrote in his Principles of Decorative Design (1873): "[T]he
grotesque in ornament is the analogue of humour in literature … I think it may be taken as a principle, that the further
the grotesque is removed from an imitation of a natural object the better it is, provided that it be energetic and vigorous
The brightly colored design of the ornamental band, in blue, light and dark green, red, yellow, and white on a pink
ground, is outlined in gold in imitation of Chinese cloisonné enamels. This decorative technique was first developed in
1861 for porcelain by the French ceramicist Eugène Collinot (died 1882), and Dresser may have been one of the first
designers to promote this method of decoration in England. The rich and exotic effect of the delineated colors on the
porcelain made "cloisonné wares" one of the Minton Ceramic Factory's most popular styles in the 1860s and 1870s.
Producing high-quality ceramics in a wide range of popular styles, the Minton factory, founded in 1793, had become
one of England's foremost ceramics manufacturers in the nineteenth century. While Dresser's work at Minton is not
completely clear, he did act as art advisor to the company from around 1860 and was affiliated with it into the 1880s.
During that time, he was also a freelance designer for the firm. His designs that were displayed at Minton's stands at
the 1862 London International Exhibition and the 1867 Paris Exposition Universelle were reviewed quite favorably.
Side chair
Designer: ChristopherDresser
This ebonized chair with gilt, incised decoration reflects the changes in furniture ornamentation and construction that occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century. Design reformers called for a reduction of heavily carved furniture. Exuberantly rendered naturalistic or architecturally derived decoration that was typical of mid-century furniture was deemed immoral, fallacious, and gaudy—it was also difficult to clean since it trapped dust and dirt. Shallow, incised ornamentation was considered more appropriate. Most commercial furniture decorated with glued, machine-carved elements was objectionable to design reformers. In his effort to reform "bad taste" in furniture design and interior decoration, Charles Locke Eastlake condemned excessive decoration and unnecessary affectation, advocating ornamentation suitable to the object it adorns and insisting that the least amount of embellishment be employed. While this chair exhibits many of the qualities required by Eastlake, it also fulfills the conditions demanded by its designer, Christopher Dresser. Although Dresser had called Eastlake "the apostle of ugliness," occasionally he agreed with him and considered Eastlake's popular book, Hints on Household Taste (1868), worth reading. Dresser also admonished heavy carving and declared in his Principles of Decorative Design (1873) that details and decorative enrichment must be subordinate to the work as a whole. Dresser illustrated this chair in his 1873 publication (fig. 27) as "in the manner of an Egyptian chair." He stressed the importance of construction, commenting that a chair soundly designed allows the user to sit confidently—unlike many contemporary examples, including Eastlake's. Although Dresser accepted the position that some aspects of the chair illustrated here were not perfectly correct, he did approve of it from a stylistic and historical perspective. The stylized palmettes and foliage reflect his interest in Egyptian motifs as well as botanical forms.
Brooch and Earrings
Designer: Edward Burr
By the mid-nineteenth century, Americans were experiencing an era of innovation in science and industry. Among the latter was the jewelry industry, which, like fashions in dress, looked to Europe for inspiration. A nostalgic romanticism infused contemporary styles in both England and America. Such mid-eighteenth-century motifs as flowers and scrolls began to reappear. This lovely half-set of brooch and earrings emulates French and English designs in the use of dark blue enamel set with diamonds and pearls. Enameling was still a little-practiced art in America, requiring the skills of a specialized craftsman. The process involved heating vitreous (glassy) enamels to bond them onto a metal surface, in this case gold. This jewelry is still housed in its original box, the lid of which is imprinted with the name and address of the jeweler: E. W. BURR / 573 B.WAY / NEW-YORK. City directories indicate that Edward Burr moved to 573 Broadway by 1858, helping us to establish a date for the set.
Side chair
French, Russian, Belgian

In literature, the style had its beginnings with the publication
Les Fleurs du mal
(The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and ‘70s.Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism of art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism.

The name “symbolist” itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the symbolists from the related decadents of literature and of art.
Designer: Edward Welby Pugin
The obvious joinery of the side chair expresses the philosophy of truth to materials and construction that recall the teachings of Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin. A follower of the Arts and Crafts movement, Pugin's son, Edward Welby Pugin, frequently borrowed designs and ideas that his father had produced decades earlier. The chair, with its curved klismostype back deriving from Grecian prototypes and Gothic-style base, was designed and registered in 1870 for the Granville Hotel, Ramsgate, Kent, and manufactured by Pugin's own company.

While the illusion of twisted and knotted rope, which is associated with the work of the Parisian upholsterer A. M. E. Fournier, is indicative of the midnineteenth- century's flair for novelty, the chair's curvilinear outline is characteristic of the Rococo Revival. The voluminous tufted upholstery, which was complementary to the popular style, camouflaged the innovative use of coiled springs, an invention that revolutionized seating furniture. Upholstery springs, first employed in the eighteenth century for carriages and gymnastic chairs, came into more general use in the 1820s, making seating furniture more comfortable. By the third quarter of the nineteenth century, the art of the upholsterer rivaled that of the cabinetmaker, as evidenced at the 1867 International Exhibition, where the majority of exhibitors of fine quality cabinet furniture, such as Jeanselme and Fourdinois, also described themselves as upholsterers. A set of stools of similar design designed by Fournier is at the Château de Compiègne and inspired the Baccarat glass factory to manufacture glass seats in this style.
This imposing armchair came to the Museum with a history of having
come from "Belvoir," a large Gothic villa built in the 1850s in Yonkers, New
York, for the tobacco merchant Christian H. Lilienthal. The design of the
villa is attributed to architect Thomas S. Wall. The armchair, like much
Gothic Revival furniture, owes more to the vocabulary of architecture than
to traditional furniture making. A nineteenth-century photo album of the
house that accompanied this chair to auction in 1986 revealed that its
library was furnished with Gothic Revival–style bookcases and armchairs
that are related to works designed by New York City cabinetmaker
Gustave Herter. While this particular chair was not pictured in the photo
album, its fine quality and its relationship to the other furniture shown in
the house suggest that it may be Herter's work.
Hunting sword
This hunting sword is a masterpiece of the Gothic Revival style and a virtuoso demonstration of mid-nineteenth-century design and
craftsmanship, which were greatly stimulated by the series of international exhibitions held in London and Paris in the 1840s–60s. It is virtually identical to one executed by an otherwise unrecorded craftsman, Marcet, for the Paris firm of silversmiths and jewelers Marrel Frères, which was shown at the Great Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace, London, in 1851.

That sword was especially praised by the exhibition's jurors, who noted that its design "left nothing to be desired." As a measure of their success, Marrel Frères received a medal for their display, and no fewer than five of their objects were purchased by the English commissioners for the new Museum of Practical Art, the forerunner of the Victoria and Albert Museum. The hunting sword was among these, valued at the substantial sum of £200, and is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum (reg. No. 159-1851).

This sword differs from the London example only in an ornamental band around the throat of the scabbard. The grip is fashioned as a deep architectural niche formed of pierced strapwork and foliage, partly gilt, into which is set a figure, cast and chased in the round, of Saint Hubert, patron of the hunt. The cross-shaped guard is inhabited by three dogs, modeled with naturalistic detail, in pursuit of a fox, which cowers at the front of the quillon block; on the end of one quillon an eagle seizes its prey, a crane. The broad, double-edged blade is chiseled with a series of interrupted fullers on each side. The scabbard is of copper, cast and chased with Gothic tracery and gilt by electroplating, an innovative technique that enjoyed great vogue during the mid-nineteenth century. Encircling the top
of the scabbard is a silver relief representing the miraculous vision of Saint Hubert; another silver panel in the center of the scabbard is embossed with trophies of the chase. An inscription, MARREL PARIS, is found at the base of the hilt and tip of the scabbard.
From the mid-sixteenth century, the French were unrivaled in the field of highly decorated, deluxe arms. This sword demonstrates that this tradition had not diminished 300 years later.cc
Double–Barrel Percussion Shotgun
The Second Empire (1852–70) marked the twilight of French gunmaking, which had dominated the design of European firearms since the seventeenth century. Parisian gunmakers consistently employed the finest contemporary designers, silversmiths, sculptors, and engravers to transform sporting arms into works of art. This exquisitely decorated shotgun reflects the period's predilection for historical revivals, in this case the Louis XV style. Especially noteworthy is the harmonious combination of Rococo ornamental vocabulary and the blue and gold coloring on the barrels, which together evoke eighteenth-century taste. Exhibited by Brun at the Exposition Universelle of 1867, the gun is actually a collaborative work by several of the leading artists and craftsmen of the time: the damascus twist barrels are by Leopold Bernard; the overall design and the intricately chiseled steel mounts are by the silversmiths Auguste and Joseph Fannières; and the delicate engravings on the barrels and mounts, encrusted in twocolor gold, are by the engraver Tissot.
The overall design of this armchair is taken directly from elements used in Gothic architecture, as are the prominent ogee-arch back surmounted by carved leaves and flanked by spandrels cut with trefoils, and the molded details of the posts, arms, supports, and legs, as well as the pierced skirt imitating tracery. The original leather upholstery has a pressed design showing a pattern of flowering scrolls in red, rust, gold, and black (originally green); the outer back is covered with a gold-colored silk glued over green serge.

Although the Gothic Revival is primarily associated with English tastes, the style also appeared in France during King Louis-Philippe's reign (1830–48). While in exile in England, Louis-Philippe developed a taste for English styles. The Gothic was also promoted by the influential architect and theorist Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, a restorer of French Gothic cathedrals.

The Jeanselme firm was founded in 1834 and within ten years had acquired the renowned furniture firm of Jacob-Desmalter. By the middle of the century, Jeanselme had become one of the most important cabinetmakers in Paris as well as Fournisseur du Mobilier de la Couronne (Furnisher to the Crown) under Louis-Philippe. The firm continued until 1930.
Jewelry casket
This rectangular casket of carved walnut with ebony details is raised on scrolled feet. The lid, decorated with scrolling
foliage carved in low relief against a stippled background as well as Renaissance motifs, is surmounted by Romulus
and Remus with the she-wolf. The side panels of the casket are carved in high relief with floral scrolls, acanthus
leaves, and birds. Cupid, carved with his bow and quiver, stands at the center of the front and back panels; the corners
are carved with mythical beasts.
One of the most successful designers and sculptors in nineteenth-century Tuscany, Giusti specialized in the carving of elaborate frames and caskets in the Renaissance style. An almost identical casket was shown at the London
International Exhibition of 1862.
Armchair and matching side chair
While a number of New York cabinetmakers produced Egyptian Revival furniture with motifs such as sphinx heads,
animal feet, palmettes, and lotus leaves during the 1870s, the firm of Pottier & Stymus is most often associated with
the style. This armchair and a matching side chair (1970.35.2) are not marked or labeled, but the attribution to Pottier
& Stymus is supported by the cabinetmaker Ernest Hagen’s description of their work “with brass gilt sphinx heads on
the sofas and armchairs, gilt engraved lines all over with porcailaine [sic] painted medallions on the backs, and brass
gilt bead moldings nailed on.” The chairs retain their original French Aubusson-style tapestry coverings, although the
once brilliant turquoise background has faded to the present wheat color.
Tea and coffee service
The various shapes employed for this exuberant service evoke both China
and the Near East, the origins of tea and coffee respectively. The Sèvres
factory described the service as a "Déjeuner Chinois Réticulé," or a
Chinese service with openwork decoration, but its fidelity to Chinese
models is slight. The shape of the tray with its scrolling feet is based upon
Chinese lacquers, and the double-walled forms with openwork exteriors
appear to have been inspired specifically by Chinese porcelains sold in
Paris in 1826. Additional Chinese-inspired elements include the simulated
bamboo handles and the painted Chinese emblems, but the profusion of
decorative motifs and the color scheme of white, pink, and gold are
entirely European in character. This blending of Asian forms with
European decoration reflected one aspect of the taste for exoticism in midnineteenth-
century France.
It is not clear if services of this design were intended primarily for display
or for use, but it is known that several were given as diplomatic gifts by
Queen Marie-Amélie, who purchased at least seven examples between
1835 and 1843. The double-walled, openwork construction was very
difficult to produce, and the factory's obvious success demonstrated its
considerable technical expertise.

Steel Invention
William Kelly
is an American ironmaster who invented the pneumatic process of steelmaking, in which air is blown through molten pig iron to oxidize and remove unwanted impurities. Also patented by Sir Henry Bessemer of Great Britain, this process produced the first inexpensive steel, which became the major construction material in the burgeoning industrial age.

Steel Technique
Englishman Henry Bessemer receives a U.S. patent for a new steel-making process that revolutionizes the industry.

The Bessemer process, which could take as little as 30 minutes to complete, resulted in better quality steel that could be mass-produced. This made steel a viable (read: cheaper) building material and it soon became the standard in heavy construction projects, like skyscrapers and bridges.

Bessemer wasn't alone in working on this process. In fact, an American, William Kelly, developed a similar oxidation technique a few years earlier.
The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company, now Western Union, expanded by buying out a number of competitive companies. In 1856, the company changed its name to
Western Union Telegraph Company
in anticipation of its ability to send telegraphs from the east coast to the west coast.

With the outbreak of the
Civil War
, swift communication with the far West became essential. The only rapid communication beyond the Missouri River was by the Pony Express, which took 10 days to carry telegrams and mail from St. Joseph to Sacramento, California.
The Panic
of 1857
financial panic
in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy. Because of the interconnectedness of the world economy by the time of the 1850s, the financial crisis that began in late 1857 was the
world's first world-wide economic crisis
. In Britain, the Palmerston government circumvented the requirements of the Peel Banking Act of 1844, which required gold and silver reserves to back up the amount of money in circulation. This circumvention set off the Panic in Britain. Beginning in September 1857, the financial downturn did not last long; however, a proper recovery was not seen until
the American Civil War
. After the failure of Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company, the financial panic quickly spread as business began to fail,
the railroad industry
experienced financial declines and hundreds of workers were laid off. Since the years immediately preceding the Panic of 1857 were prosperous, many banks, merchants, and farmers had seized the opportunity to take risks with their investments and as soon as market prices began to fall, they quickly began to experience the effects of financial panic.
1st Oil-Drilling
The history of the oil business as we know it began in 1859 in Pennsylvania, thanks to
Edwin L. Drake
, a career railroad conductor who devised a way to drill a practical oil well.

Within two years there was an oil boom in western
, with wells that produced thousands of barrels of oil a day. The price of oil dropped so low that Drake and his employers were essentially put out of business. But Drake's efforts showed that drilling for oil could be practical.
The first internal combustion engine was built by
Etienne Lenoir
. It ran on street-lightning gas, which was ignited by an electric spark. It ran smoothly, but it wasn't very powerful because the fuel and the air weren't compressed so it didn't burn fast enough. Even though they took a lot of fuel people still bought them.
1st Internal
Morrill Act
Railway Act
U.S. Congress passed on July 2, 1862, the Morrill Act and made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizens. The new land-grant institutions, which emphasized agriculture and mechanic arts, opened opportunities to thousands of farmers and working people previously excluded from higher education.
This act, passed by
on July 1, 1862, provided Federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad across the
United States
1st Railroad
Sleeping Car
George Pullman
was an American engineer and industrialist. He designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car in 1864. He came from the
New England
New York
to make
the greatest industrial city of the world during the late 19th century. As railroad mileage tripled between 1850 and 1860, the uncomfortable conditions passengers endured on trips longer than a few hours became intolerable. It took three and a half days to travel from Chicago to New York, and a typical traveler resorted to hotels at night. The need for a sleeping car was widely understood, but at the time none were satisfactory.
1st Web Offset
Printing Press
Development of the offset press came in 1875 by
Robert Barclay
for printing on tin. This development combined mid-19th century transfer printing technologies and Richard March Hoe’s 1843 rotary printing press—a press that used a metal cylinder instead of a flat stone. The offset cylinder was covered with specially treated cardboard that transferred the printed image from the stone to the surface of the metal. Later, the cardboard covering of the offset cylinder was changed to rubber, which is still the most commonly used material.
Artist: Jean-François Millet

Illustration of Sepoy Rebellion 1857 (Palmer 644)
Artist: Hans Gude
Title: Efoybroen, Nord-Wales
Date: 1863

Artist: Mariano Fortuny
Title: The Spanish Wedding.
Date: 1870
Artist: Robert Wylie
Title: The Models of Pont-Aven
Date: c. 1870
Artist: Johan Jongkind
The Seine and Notre-Dame in Paris
Date: 1864
Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer (1836 – 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art.
Labor Union
First Telegraphic
First Telegraphic Cable laid between France and Britain.
Telegraph Cable
"The Pacific Telegraph Act of 1866 called for the facilitation of communication between the east and west coasts of the United States of America. Hiram Sibley of the Western Union Telegraph Company won the contract. Benjamin Franklin Ficklin joined Hiram Sibley in helping to form the Pacific Telegraph Company of Nebraska. At the same time, Jeptha Wade was asked by Hiram Sibley to consolidate smaller telegraph companies in California. While the Pacific Telegraph Company built west from Omaha, Nebraska, the Overland Telegraph Company of California was thus formed and built east from Carson City, Nevada. With their connection in Salt Lake City, Utah, the final link between the east and west coasts of the United States of America was made by telegraph. The First Transcontinental Telegraph lead to the immediate demise of the Pony Express. The Pacific Telegraph Company and the Overland Telegraph Company of California were eventually absorbed into the Western Union Telegraph Company."
"In 1866, the British ship Great Eastern succeeded in laying the first permanent telegraph line across the Atlantic Ocean. Cyrus West Field was the object of much praise on both sides of the Atlantic for his persistence in accomplishing what many thought to be an impossible undertaking. He later promoted other oceanic cables, including telegraph lines that stretched from Hawaii to Asia and Australia."
"The National Labor Union (NLU) was the
first national labor federation
in the
United States
. Founded in 1866 and dissolved in 1873, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor and the AFL (American Federation of Labor). It was led by
William H. Sylvis
. The National Labor Union followed the unsuccessful efforts of labor activists to form a national coalition of local trade unions. The National Labor Union sought instead to bring together all of the national labor organizations in existence, as well as the "eight-hour leagues" established to press for the eight-hour day, to create a national federation that could press for labor reforms and help found national unions in those areas where none existed. The new organization favored arbitration over strikes and called for the creation of a national labor party as an alternative to the two existing parties."
New Federal
Bankruptcy Law
"Congress in 1867 passed a new bankruptcy statute that granted the district and circuit courts expansive jurisdiction over ordinary suits in law and equity related to a bankrupt estate. The 1867 Act included “the collection of all the assets of the bankrupt” as part of its grant of jurisdiction over “proceedings in bankruptcy.” The Supreme Court in the 1875 case of Lathrop v. Drake ruled that assignees could commence proceedings to collect debts owed the estate in any district court in the country where assets were held, not just in the district court where the bankruptcy was commenced. Congress also granted the district courts and the circuit court within the district where the bankruptcy was commenced concurrent jurisdiction over suits between bankruptcy assignees and third parties involving so-called adverse claims, or disputes over property alleged to be due to the bankrupt estate. These “plenary suits,” as distinct from the “summary jurisdiction” over assets already deemed to be part of the estate, could be brought in a federal court even if no other basis for federal court jurisdiction existed. An 1874 amendment allowed a plenary suit involving a bankrupt estate in any circuit court, not just in the district where the bankruptcy was filed. The Supreme Court upheld these grants of jurisdiction as a legitimate part of a national system of bankruptcy."
John Constable
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
Realism, Romanticism
Jake Pitler
Sara Almudhaf
Kunzhao Wu
Sara Almudhaf
Jake Pitler
Sara Almudhaf
Yaling Zhang

Jake Pitler
Kunzhao Wu
Sara Almudhaf
Kunzhao Wu
Jake Pitler
Yaling Zhang
Sara Almudhaf
Kunzhao Wu
Jake Pitler
Yaling Zhang
Jake Pitler
Time Line Design

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Art Movements

Graphic Design

Product Design

Jean-Francois Millet
Process for Steel
"The open hearth process was introduced into
in 1868. In 1880 that country produced 1,074,000 tons of Bessemer steel, and 110,000 tons of open hearth steel. Forty years later these figures had increased to 8,883,000 tons of Bessemer steel, and 32,672,000 tons of open hearth steel, the total production being nearly equal to half a ton of steel per head of population."

Early 20 C
The Gleaners
"Granger movement, The Granger movement, lithograph from 1873.
[Credit: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.] coalition of
U.S. farmers
, particularly in the Middle West, that fought monopolistic grain transport practices during the decade following the American Civil War. The Granger movement
began with a single individual
, Oliver Hudson Kelley. Kelley was an employee of the
Department of Agriculture
in 1866 when he made a tour of the South. Shocked by the ignorance there of sound agricultural practices, Kelley in 1867 began an organization—the Patrons of Husbandry—he hoped would bring farmers together for educational discussions and social purposes."
Robert Wylie
The Models of Pont-Aven
American Society of Civil Engineers. “Fink Through Truss Bridge.” Accessed November 21, 2013.

Drucker, Johanna and Emily McVarish. Graphic Design History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2013.

Eskilson, Stephen J.. Graphic Design A New History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.

Meggs, Philip B. and Alston W. Purvis. Megg’s History of Graphic Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.

McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Clare Haru Crowston and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks.
A History of Western Society, Vol. II. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2008.

Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton and Lloyd Kramer. A History of The Modern World. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., 2002.

Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 2007.

The Long List of the Long Stuff at The Longest Domain. “World’s First New York Times”
Accessed on 21 November2013.

Olson, James S, Encyclpedia of the industrial Revolution in America.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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