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khadija yassin

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Heroin?!

HEROIN!? The Discovery What Is Heroin? Heroin is a drug, basically a pure white powder, that's extremely addictive. Usually the powder is light gray, black or brown in a result to what the user adds to it to modify it, such as, caffeine or sugar. Though these additions don't entirely break down in the body once injected. They can actually block the flow from the blood vessels to your organs. Which can lead to much more tragedy. Short Term Effects! To those who you use the drug, you probably don't know about the short-term effects. Even though you might feel pleasure because your body is at a drowsy, relaxed, care-free state thanks to the drug, the short-term effects are highly dangerous and can even lead to death. Here they are... How is it made? Long Term Effects The Long Term effects of heroin basically revolve around the addiction aspect. The addiction of heroin can cause lying, stealing, financial issues, skipping work, and legal problems. Which can not just only effect the heroin addict but also anyone close to them, such as family and friends. The more you're addicted the higher the risk of these long term effects... HEROIN? NICHOLAS KHADIJA & TABLE OF CONTENTS What is Heroin? The Discovery! How is it made? Short Term Effects Long Term Effects Medical Usage! Legal or Illegal? Shocking Facts! Bibliography! Heroin was made by C.R Alder Wright an English chemist working at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School. He had been experimenting different combinations of morphine and various acids. He boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several hours and produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate. There are many ways to take in heroin, such as injected, smoked or sniffed. First time using the drug? Well....if it is then the drug itself can get your body to become very high. Making you more sociable and open and even a little sexually frustrated, though not for long. Beginners are oblivious to the strength and addiction of heroin, which is a perfect reason why millions are hooked on heroin and just can't stop. BY: Wright's invention did not lead to any further developments, and diacetylmorphine became popular after being remade 23 years later by another chemist by the name of Felix Hoffman. Hoffman was working at the Aktiengesellschaft Farbenfabriken (today called the Bayer pharmaceutical company) in Elberfeld, Germany, he was told by his supervisor Heinrich Dreser to acetylate morphine with the goal of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy, similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive. Instead, the experiment produced a form of morphine one and a half to two times more potent than morphine itself. From 1898 to 1910, diacetylmorphine was marketed under the trademark name Heroin as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant. Bayer marketed the drug as a cure for morphine addiction before it was discovered that it rapidly formes into morphine a quicker-acting form of morphine. The company was embarrassed by the new finding, which became a historic blunder for Bayer. At the morphine filter, the opium is blended with lime and water. The essential waste drops to the bottom while a white strip of morphine appears at the top. The white strip is scooped off, reheated with ammonia, purified and then boiled again until you're left with brown gum. Draining the brown gum into forms and depleting it in the sun leaves you with morphine base, which is similar to modeling clay. You can smoke the morphine base in a pipe or you can go further in the making such as C.R. Wright. With Wright he boiled morphine and acetic arhydride (common chemical) together for a couple of hours which apparently creates a feathery, white powder known as number four heroin. Thought there are still more complicated ways for a further process. Heroin actually comes from opium poppies (papaver somniferum), which are brightly colored flowers that are grown in parts of Turkey, Laos, Pakistan, and southern Asia and now even in parts of Latin America (Colombia). The opium poppy grows in a sunny, torrid climate. After planting the poppy for about 3 months in time, you'll start to notice the petals beginning to fall off which will soon lead to the sight of an elliptical seed pod. A murky, whitish sap is hidden inside this pod, which is actually opium in its most savaged state. In order to make heroin you need to get a hold of the opium, which is done by taking a special type of knife and carefully vertically slicing the pod in parallel lines so that the sap can gush out. Once the sap is exposed it becomes dimmer and firm turning into a brownish, black amber. The farmers job is to gather up the amber and wrap it up in a package to sell to a merchant or breaker in the black market. The brokers/merchants then transfer the packages to a morphine filter. Short Term Effects of Heroin: * Euphoria (a state of intense happiness) * Nodding off (alternately alert and drowsy state) * Dry Mouth * Severe Itching * Slowed Breathing * Warm Flushed Skin * Slowed Mental Function * Dizziness * Weakness in muscles * Reduced physical pain * Overdose and/or Death * Constructed Pupils * Nausea or vomiting Long Term Effects of Heroin: * Addiction * Bacterial infections in heart and lungs * Infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and Hepatitus C and B * Abscesses * Collapsed veins * Liver and/or kidney disease * Overdose and death * Decreased mental function * Constipation * Malnutrition and weight loss * Heroin withdrawal * Arthritis and other rheumatologic issues Social Effects Social Effects! Those who use heroin categorize themselves among two groups, people who also use heroin and people who don't. The idea of categorizing results in the user not spending as much time with family and friends but instead with their 'friends' who are also hooked on heroin. The reason it's hard to quit or seek help is because of the sense of addiction and your so called 'friends'. Heroin has the effect to make you oblivious of what's important in life. In your mind heroin itself is your life, which can make you forget about your responsibilities such as education, your job and paying the bills. This all can get you in trouble financially and legally. Turning your life upside down. SHOCKING FACT! Teens as young as us, 13, have actually been found in using heroin!! Shocking Fact! You are actually at risk of having a heart attack or stroke after taking in heroin, even though it might be our first time!! Shocking Fact! Over the past couple of years heroin overdose has caused more deaths than traffic incidents!! Shocking Facts! The number of people at the age of 12 - 17 who have used heroin at least once, increased by 300% in America between 1995 to 2002!! Shocking Facts! About 16 million people around the world use opiates (opium), morphine, heroin and unnatural opiates in 2008!! Shocking Facts! There are many other names for heroin such as smack, horse, brown sugar, dope, H, junk, skag, skunk, white horse, China white and Mexican black tar!! Shocking Facts! Thanks to heroin, there were about 84,000 visits to the hospital last year!! Shocking Facts! 150-250 mg is how much the average heroin user takes daily!! Bibliography! Where did we get our info from? What is Heroin? The Discovery! How is it made? Short Terms! Long Terms! Social Effects! Medical Usage! Legal or Illegal? Shocking Facts! www.drugfreeworld.org www.pbs.org www.heroinaddiction.ws www.heroinaddiction.ws www.heroinadvisor.co.uk www.drugfreeworld.com , www.abovetheinfluence.com , www.inthezone.com , www.michaelshouse.com , www.umich.edu , www.suburbanjunky.com Illegal or legal I think heroin should be illegal because heroin is a drug that has a negative affects to the person doing the heroin and the people around them. Heroin can kill people if the heroin user puts too much heroin in their body at once which is called overdose. Heroin addicts can put stress and depression to others around them. Families of heroin addicts can get stress because they might worry all the time that one day their relative or child might die one day by overdose or their child might get diseases from taking heroin and they might worry all the time about their diseases. Medical Purposes of heroin Heroin or diacetylmorphine is a strong analgesic (commonly known as pain killer medicine, as they are used in treatment of pain) medication. In the United Kingdom and other countries (such as Netherlands) where heroin is available legally with proper prescription. The medical use of heroin is in acute pain conditions such as due to severe physical trauma, injury, post surgical pain heart attacks and chronic painful conditions such as cancer pains of end stage cancer (which are very severe and can not be managed by conventional pain medications), pain of some terminal illnesses. Heroin is used in severe painful conditions, which can not be treated (pain reduction) with conventional pain killers such as NSAIDs (non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) or other pain medications. In countries where heroin is not available legally, morphine is used in those conditions mentioned above. Why heroin is used instead of morphine?
In countries where heroin is available legally for medical use, most doctors prefer heroin over morphine for treatment of severe painful conditions, because heroin is more lipid (fat) soluble and for this reason can reach the target tissue more easily than morphine and it is more potent. Smaller dose of heroin can have equal effect of a larger dose of morphine. Shocking Facts! $150-200 is on average of how much a heroin user pays to be able to support their addiction. Shocking Facts! 4,251 heroin addicts died last year because of taking this drug!! www.wikipedia.com www.wikipedia.com using the info from the entire project and own thinking
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