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Transcript of Reformation
POV: Selling indulgences is for the good of the church. Defending the Church against the view that they were acting immorally by selling indulgences. Those who buy indulgences are making a sacrifice and becoming better people through their repentance to God.
Audience: General public
Bias: For the church Document 1 Artist: Albrecht Durer
POV: Rejected the authority of the Catholic clergy. The four men of the apocalypse are meant to represent those separating from the Catholic Church and are crushing Catholic ideas and dominance as they are riding over people representing the clergy. The four men are succeeding over the clergy and moving forward with their ideas and reformation.
Audience: Public; was later published in Luther's bible
Bias: Against the Church Document 2 Author: Martin Luther
POV: Beware of the rebels. The reformers are rebels so the Church should be aware of how powerful they are. Warning to the Church. Boost of moral to the reformers.
Bias: Against the Church Document 3 Author: Martin Luther
POV: People should be able to bring about a council for anyone who does wrong, including the pope. The church should not have absolute power and not be able to override temporal authorities.
Audience: Christian Nobility of Germany
Bias: Against the Church Document 4 Author: Michael Eisenhart
POV: Luther is falsely teaching, which is encouraging revolts and the disobedience of authority
Audience: Holy Roman Empire
Bias: Against Luther & Lutheran Document 5 Author: English Parliament
POV: The King of England has supreme sovereignty over the Church of England
Bias: For the King of England Document 6 Author: Ignatius Loyola
POV: Keep God & the Church above all else, especially in the midst of the Protestant Reformation
Audience: Catholic laymen
Bias: For the Catholic Church Document 7 Author: Imperial Diet
POV: Peace should be maintained, especially between Germany and the HRE, regardless of religious differences
Bias: None Document 8 Author: John Calvin
POV: Strict Calvinist regulations, offenses, and punishments for disobeying said regulations and offenses
Audience: People of Geneva & neighboring cities
Bias: Against Catholic Church Document 9 Author: Representatives that attended the Council of Trent, from Portugal, Poland, Hungary, Ireland, few from Germany
POV: All clergy has divine ordinance & anyone who opposes this thought will be excommunicated
Bias: For the Counter-Reformation & Catholics Document 10 The Reformation was a period in history that occurred subsequently following the period in European history known as the Renaissance. The Reformation was resultant of the Renaissance because the Renaissance caused a shift in public thought in many areas, including religion. New ideas became prominent, but there were still traditionalists, like Catholics, who opposed this new found change which can be seen by the rise of Lutherans, Calvinist, Anglicans, and Anabaptist. Politically, authority figures of both church and state were trying to gain money, as well supreme authority over religious jurisdiction. Socially, many were accepting religious changes and converting, whereas others resisted change. This caused various conflicts that often ended in revolts, riots, wars, and witch-hunts. Economically, religious authorities were taking advantage of the sale of indulgences, which was seen in the eyes of some as sinful and caused opposition that fed the Reformation. Thesis and Introduction The religious schism of the 16th century was symptomatic of political problems. The growth of democracy began which led to the schism because popes and monarchs were being challenged (Doc 4).
King Henry VIII of England declared himself head of the Church of England, which he made the official denomination of England.
The decline of the papacy also led to the Reformation. The Great Schism and Babylonian Captivity were the cause of this decrease in papal authority.
Discuss the extent to which the religious schism during the 16th century was symptomatic of political, social, and economic problems. Social problems in the 16th century also caused the religious schism.
Moral corruption in the Church by church leaders included simony, absenteeism, pluralism, the sale of indulgences, and disregard for vows of celibacy.
Individuals such as Wycliffe, Huss, Luther, and Erasmus voiced their opinions opposing certain ideas the Catholic Church stood for.
New philosophies that the Renaissance brought upon, such as humanism, individualism, and secularism also led the the Reformation. Humanists pointed out problems in the church and demanded reform. Individualism caused people to think for themselves. Secularism led to the corruption in the Church.
Economic issues stemmed from the feudal system of the Catholic Church. The feudal system allowed the church to have absolute power over the land and instituted feudal landlords. The people were also fed up with the clerical taxes that the Church implemented among the people. Groups For the Catholic Church 1, 5, 7, 10. Against the Church 2, 3, 4, 6, 9. Economy 1, 4. Political 6, 8, 9, 10. Social 2, 3, 5. Germans 1, 2, 3, 4, 8. HRE 5, 8. Catholics 1, 7, 10. Protestants 2, 3, 4, 6. Lutheran 2, 3, 4.