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Medium & Technique

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Lilay Saguing

on 12 July 2015

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Transcript of Medium & Technique

Medium & Technique
MEDIUM
Mediums of the Visual Arts
PAINTING
The Artist and His Medium
Oftentimes, the matter of selecting the medium depends entirely on the artist himself. He normally selects the materials that can be handled with ease, that would be suit his plan, and adequately bring out the qualities he wants to show. The artist must love, respect, and understand his medium to make it easier for him ot expand his knowledge and improve his skill in his chosen area.
DRAWING
PENCIL, PEN AND INK, AND CHARCOAL
Chapter 2
The Artist's Medium

comes from the Latin word
medium
, which means an artist is communicating with his idea.

are materials used by an artist to express his/her feelings or thoughts.
In accordance to MEDIUM, arts are primarily classified as visual and auditory.
Visual Arts
are those whose mediums can be seen and which occupy space.
Grouped into to class:
1. The dimensional art or two-dimensional arts
which include painting, drawing, printmaking, and photography
2. The three-dimensional arts
which include sculpture, architecture, landscape, industrial designs and crafts like furniture
Auditory Arts
are those whose mediums can be heard and which are expressed in time.
Visual Arts & Auditory Arts
are those whose mediums can be both seen and head and which exist in both space and time.
Combined Arts
Visual Arts
Auditory Arts
Medium & Technique
TECHNIQUE
is the manner in which the artist controls his medium to achieve the desired effect.
the ability which he fulfills the technical requirements of his particular work of art.
The Artist and
His Medium

The artist thinks, feels, and gives shape to his vision in terms of his medium. When an artist chooses a particular medium, he believes that his choice can best express the idea he wants to convey. At times, an artist employs more than one medium to give meaning to his creative production.
The Artist and
His Technique

Artists differ from one another in technique even if they use the same medium. A musician’s technique is his ability to make music sound the way he wants it. For instance, a pianist may sound different from another pianist even as they handle the same instrument and play the same musical composition
is the art of creating a meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of pigments.
each medium exerts a pronounced effect on the finished product, is capable of varied treatment, and determines its own stroke.
the materials of the painter are pigments applied to wet plaster, canvas,wood or paper
PAINTING
WATERCOLOR
The pigments are mixed with water and applied to fine fine white paper.
Colours applied in very thin layers.
Gouache is an opaque watercolour.
It differs from a dominantly brilliant quality of translucent watercolour painting.
FRESCO
Is a painting method done on a moist plaster surface with colors ground in water or limewater mixture.
The colors are mixed with water and applied to fresh plaster which absorbs the color.
Means “fresh” in Italian.
PAINTING
TEMPERA
Is a mineral pigments mixed with egg yolk or egg white and ore.
One of the favourite medium of many painters throughout the Middle Ages and early Renaissance before oil is adopted.
Usually done on wooden panel made very smooth with plaster called “gesso” (chalk and gum)
PASTEL
Is a stick of dried paste made of pigment ground with chalk and compounded with gum and water.
It is a very flexible medium.
The chalk tends to rub off and the picture loses its brilliance.
PAINTING
ENCAUSTIC
Is one of the early mediums used by the Egyptian for painting portraits on mummy cases.
An invention of Greek art, its name derives from the Greek word meaning "burnt in”.
This done by applying wax color fixed with heat.
OIL
Oil painting is one of the most expensive art activity today because of the prohibitive cost of materials.
One good quality of oil paint as a medium is its flexibility.
Painting done in oil appears glossy and last long .
Painting
The newest medium and one that is used widely by painters today.
Combined transparency and quick-drying qualities of watercolor and flexible as oil.
Synthetic paints using acrylic emulsions as binder.
ACRYLIC
Mediums of the Visual Arts
MOSAIC
Art that a picture or decoration made of small pieces of inlaid colored stones or glass called “tesserae” to create an image.
Important feature of Byzantine churches.
A prominent religious artwork in Manila done in mosaic found in altar of Sta.Cruz Church showing a wounded white lamb, symbolizing Christ .
PAINTING
MOSAIC
Mediums of the Visual Arts
STAINED GLASS
As an artwork common in Gothic cathedrals and churches.
Small pieces of colored glass, together by bands of lead.
It is a kind of patchwork.
Stained-glass windows showing scenes from the Bible that commonly found in the Philippine churches.
Mediums of the Visual Arts
TAPESTRY
Is a fabric produced by hand-weaving colored threads upon a wrap.
Produce a woven design ,often pictorials, wall hanging, and furniture covering.
During Middle Ages , they hung on the walls of places and in cathedrals on festive occasions to provide warmth.
STAINED GLASS
TAPESTRY
Mediums of the Visual Arts
DRAWING
It is the most fundamental of all skills necessary in arts.
Drawing is usually done on paper using pencil, pen and ink or charcoal.
The best known drawing in the world’s is Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) an Italian artist.
Pencil leads (graphite) are graded in different degrees of hardness or softness.
Ink , one of the oldest medium still in use, a great variety of qualities.
India ink, comes in liquid form the favourite medium of comic strip illustration and cartoonists.
Chinese ink , comes in solid sticks that are dissolved in water before they are used.
Charcoal is a carbonaceous material obtained heating wood or other organic in the absence of oxygen.
DRAWING
BISTRE
A brown pigment extracted from the soot of wood, and often used in pen and wash drawing.
Pigment that bound by wax and compressed into painted sticks used for drawing.
CRAYONS
SILVERPOINT
 One of several types of metalpoint used by scribes, craftsmen and artists since ancient times. 
In this medium , artist has technique drawing with a silver stylus specially prepared paper to produce a thin grayish line that popular during the Renaissance period.
Mediums of the Visual Arts
PRINTMAKING
A print is anything printed on a surface that is a direct result from the duplication process.
Ordinarily, painting or graphic image done in black ink on white appear and becomes the artist’s plate.
Advantage of printmaking is the process of making copies of the original drawing.
5 Major Types of Prints
Woodcut
Engraving
Relief
Intaglio
Stencils
Mediums of the Visual Arts
LITHOGRAPHY
Lithography is a surface printing done with smooth surface which has treated chemically or mechanically so that surface will print others will not.
Lithographic painting , known as planographic process.
Artist use a greasy crayon or pencil on slab of special limestone or zinc plate.
Drawing is fixed with acid solution.
Mediums of the Visual Arts
SCULPTURE
is a branch of the visual art that operates in three dimensions.
Durable scupture processes used in carving (Removal of material), modelling (additional material) , in stone, metal, ceramics, and wood and other materials but same modernism, shift in sculpture process led to an almost complete freedom materials and process.
SCULPTURE
The Artist and His Medium

A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving assembled by welding or modelling and molded or cast.
Began in Ancient Greece itis widely seen as producing great masterpiece in the classical period during the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith.
SCULPTURE
STONE
Stone is the hard and brittle substance formed from minerals and earth material.
Granular and dull in appearance is a finished product.
It is usually used for gravestone in cemeteries.
It includes sandstone,granite, basalt, marble, and limestone.
Stone
Granite Stone
Limestone
Sandstone
Basalt
Serpentine Marble
Breciated Marble
Marble
SCULPTURE
JADE
Is a special stone that is believed to promote wisdom,balance and peace.
This prehistoric sign of calm and peace is unique, strong piece of tool that encourages our conciousness to incress at a higher level.
The ancient people from the East of China have known all the healing properties of Jade for hundreds of year.
IVORY
Is from the main parts of tusks of elephants, is the hard white substance used to make carving, billiard balls art or manufacturing products, and images of saints.
The word ivory ultimately derives from the Ancient Egyptian through the Latin ebor- or ebur.
Ivory Billiard Balls
Ivory of Task in Elephant
SCULPTURE
METALS
Include any class of elementary substance such as gold, silver, or copper which are crystalline solid and characterized by capacity, utility, conductivity and peculair luster when freshly fractured.
They can be shaped or deformed into :
Aluminum
Brass
Bronze
Copper
Gold & Silver
Lead
SCULPTURE
PLASTER
The term plaster can refer to gymsum plaster also known as ( plaster of Paris).
It composed of line , sand and water .
Plaster is manufactured as a dry powder and is mixed with water to form a paste when used .
It is a building material used to applied on walls and cellings that allowed for hard and dry.
The medium used extensively in making manikins, models, molds, architectural decoration, and other indoor sculpture.
SCULPTURE
CLAY
Is a natural earth material that is plastic when wet, due to the water content and become hard, brittle, and non-plastic upon drying or firing.
It consist essentially of hydrated silicates of aluminum and it used for making bricks and ceramics.
Earthwave commonly reffered to as terra cotta or "baked earth".
It has been used during the earth times, most oriented sculpture come in the form of terra cotta.
Clay
Brilliant Cloves Clay
Terra Cotta
GLASS
Is a medium that is hard, brittle, non-crytalline, more or less transparent substance produced by fusion, usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica and silicates and contains soda and lime.
It can be molded in various color and shape.
It has used to make beautiful but fragile figurines.
WOOD
Is easier to carve than any other mediums available beacause it can be subjected int ovariety of treatment.
It is lighter and softer to carve despite having greater tensile strength than stone; hence, it can be used in long pieces without breaking.
Glass
Wood
ARCHITECTURE
Art of designing a building and supervising its construction.
Is producing shelter to serve as protection of men in carrying out his activities- work, recreation and sleep.
To fulfill man’s need.
One of the primary purposes of architecture is to fulfill man's needs which are:
PHYSICAL NEED
shelter which must have necessities and comfort.
EMOTIONAL NEED
endowed with rich beauty and interest.
INTELLECTUAL NEED
a building for science, education, government, etc.
PSYCHOLOGICAL NEED
for recognition and response.
Factors in the choice and use of architectural materials
1. Structural Property
workability with tools as construction materials.
2. Physical Property
use of materials for aesthetic purposes.
Texture
Color
Tone Quality
3. Weakness of the Material
Rotting
Corrosion due to moisture
Discolorization
Solar radiation
Fungus growth
Susceptibility to infection by wood-boring, weevils, termites and other pests.
4. Longevity of the Material
lifespan of the materials.
10 years
20 years
half a century
more than a century
5. Other inherent properties
Weight
Water resistance
Heat resistance
Acoustic values
Availability
Economy
Materials used in architecture are classified into three :
Materials found in nature
Materials manufactured or made by man
Indigenous materials
CLASSIFICATION: MATERIALS IN NATURE
Stone
Granite Stone
Limestone
Sandstone
Marble
STONES
WOOD
CLASSIFICATION: MATERIALS MANUFACTURED BY MAN
1. CERAMIC MATERIALS
MATERIALS MANUFACTURED BY MAN
This type of material constitutes the majority of building materials.
are 
inorganic, non-metallic
 materials made from compounds of a metal and a non metal. Ceramic materials may be 
crystalline
 or partly crystalline. They are formed by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials tend to be strong, stiff, brittle, chemically inert, and non-conductors of heat and electricity, but their properties vary widely. For example, 
porcelain
 is widely used to make electrical insulators, but some ceramic compounds are
superconductors.
MATERIALS MANUFACTURED BY MAN
GLASS
2. METALS
(from Greek  métallon, "mine, quarry), metal is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good 
electrical
 and 
thermal
conductivity. The common metals used in architecture are bronze, wrought iron, copper, chrome-nickel-steel, aluminum, concrete materials and plastics.
Aluminum
Bronze
Copper
Monel Metal
Wrought Iron
Nickel Silver
Chrome Nickel Steel
3. CONCRETE MATERIALS
MATERIALS MANUFACTURED BY MAN
These materials are becoming more and more favored among architectural building materials because of their availability, durability, and flexibility. Concrete has high strength, and a surface and texture capable of contributing to the aesthetic quality of a building. Masonry finishes such as washout finishes utilize cement mortar mixed with pebble stones, broken glass and synthetic stones. These materials are smooth, hard, permanent, light, transparent, or opaque and durable.
MATERIALS MANUFACTURED BY MAN
These materials are becoming more and more favored among architectural building materials because of their availability, durability, and flexibility. Concrete has high strength, and a surface and texture capable of contributing to the aesthetic quality of a building. Masonry finishes such as washout finishes utilize cement mortar mixed with pebble stones, broken glass and synthetic stones. These materials are smooth, hard, permanent, light, transparent, or opaque and durable.
4. PLASTICS
MATERIALS MANUFACTURED BY MAN
Plastics opened up new architectural forms and designs due to its versatility. Plastics nay be sowed, cut, bend, drilled and treaded. They can also be molded, cast, extruded and laminated depending upon their composition or use. Cast plastics may come as sheets, rods, strips, cylinders and cones and can be used for walls, ceilings and doors. Strips of the materials can be bent into table legs, chai backs or light reflectors. They are capable of resisting water, acid, fire or wear. Resin-bonded plywoods are strong, light and durable plastic materials.
CLASSIFICATION: INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
These materials are found in the locality and are widely used in architecture, Some of the indigenous materials are sawali, coco coir (trunks, leaves, husks), bagasse, abaca, bamboo, palm fond stems, earth and mud bricks, cane wood(rattan), rice husk, and cogon.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Sawali
This material comes from outer covering of bamboo poles. It is woven into mats and ideal for cement backing.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Coco Coir
This by-product of coconut is used to minimize the use of cement as sandwich panels for insulation.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Bagasse
This is a sugar cane waste used for insulation or cement backing.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Abaca
This is a fiber material obtained from the leafstalk of a banana plant. Most of these materials are found in Bicol region.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Bamboo
It has low degree of elasticity, low concrete adhesion, and wide variable moisture content. It is very helpful in architectural forms and designs, mainly as reinforcement to concrete.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Palm Frond Stem
This material is often used fo rnon-structural panels, walls, screens, and bases of houses.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
Mud Bricks
Made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
Mediums of the Performing Arts
MUSIC
Vocal Music
Music is an art. Culture is reflected in art. The more music a man knows, the more cultured he becomes. It deals with sounds.
Mediums of Music:
Vocal and Instrumenal Music
The oldest and most natural form of music. Voice is produced by the vibrations of the vocal chords in the voice box.
Correct Posture
Correct breathing
Correct placement of the Voice
Correct diction
Correct interpretation
to prevent throat singing and develop good quality, never for out the voice. Project the voice upward towards the head to improve tonal quality
good diction icludes correct pronounciation, clean enunciation, and distinct articulation.
how the singer makes use of his face, eyes, hands, and other parts of the body assists his voice in conveyingthe meaning of the song.
VOCAL MUSIC
Classification of Vocal Music
1. Long Vocal Forms
Opera
Cantata
Oratorio
Moro-Moro
Zarzuela
2. Short Vocal Forms
folk songs
art songs
kundiman
balitaw
danza abanera
anthem
motet
madrigal
ballad
chorale
round/cannon
area
VOCAL MUSIC
Voice Classification
Women's voices
A. Soprano
colorut soprano
mezzo-soprano
lyric soprano
B. Alto or Contralto
Men's voices
A. Tenor
B. Baritone
C. Bass
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
Are the other medium in producing music.
Classified into:
1. SONATA- a long composition for solo instrument, consisting of large sections called movements
2. SUITE - a series of musical pieces that tells a story. A music that tells a story is called a program while a music that tells no story is absolute music.
3. SYMPHONY - a sonata for the orchestra.
4. CONCERTO - a sonata for solo and orchestra designed to show-off the virtuosity of the soloist.
5. CHAMBER MUSIC - written for two solo instruments (violins and flutes) and basso continuo (low string and keyboard) and usually in several movements. Chamber music is classified into sonata da camara (chamber sonata) and sonata da chiesa (church sonata).
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
Types of Musical Instruments
1. String Instrument
is a musical instrument that makes sound by vibrating the strings on it.
2. Wind Instruments
A wind instrument is a musical instrument in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator.
A. The Brasses
B. The woodwinds
3. Percussion Instrument
The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine.
PROPERTIES OF MUSICAL SOUND
Pitch
Duration
Volume
Timbre or Tone Color

LITERATURE
In its broadest sense, is any written work;
Etymologically the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts.
Language is the medium of literature.
Literature is written in any language but most often it is translated to English to facilitate wider reach and distribution.
English language is the very flexible medium and a wide variety of writing techniques can be experimented with it.
METHODS OF ART PRODUCTION AND PRESENTATION
Realism
Abstraction
Symbolism
Fauvism

Dadaism
Futurism
Surrealism
Expressionism

1. REALISM
In painting, this is the attempt to portray the subject as it is .
Realist chooses a subject from nature ,he can select , change , and arrange details.
Realist try to be as objective as possible.
Artist’s main function is to describe as accurately and honestly as possible what is observed through the senses

2. ABSTRACTION
Abstract is used when the artist becomes so interested in one phase of a scene or a situation the he does not show the subject at all as an objective reality, but only his idea, or his feeling about it.
Abstract means “to move away or separate”.
ABSTRACT SUBJECTS can be presented through the ff:
Distortion – This is clearly manifested when the subject is in misshapen or the regular shape is twisted.
Elongation – It refers to the lengthening of a subject(protraction or extension)
Mangling – This may not be a common way of presenting an abstract subject, but there are few artists who show subjects which are cut, hacked with repeated blows.
Cubism – It takes the abstract form though the use of a cone, cylinder, or sphere at the expense of other pictorial elements..
Abstract expression Strong color, heavy impasto, uneven brush strokes, and rough textures are other typical characteristics.
3. SYMBOLISM
A symbol in general, is a visible sign of something invisible such as an idea or quality. It can be simply an emblem or sign like: % to represent percent, a lion to represent courage, or a lamb to represent meekness.
Well known symbols arise from conventional usage, association, and general relationship.
4. FAUVISM
was the 1st important art movement of the 1900’s.
is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"
Henri Matisse led the movement.
Most of these artists tried to paint pictures of comfort, joy, and pleasure

5. DADAISM
Is a protest movement in the arts formed in 1916 by a group of artists and poets in Zurich , Switzerland.
Correspond to the outbreak of World War I.
The movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests.
6. FUTURISM
 Was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
It emphasized speed, technology, youth and violence and objects such as the car, the aeroplane and the industrial city
7. SURREALISM
Founded in Paris in 1924 by the French poet Andre Breton.
Best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Uses art as weapon against the evil restrictions that surrealists see in society.
8. EXPRESSIONISM
Introduced in Germany during the first decade of the 20th century.
Influenced the playwrights in English and Filipino in the Philippines.
Sought to express or emotional experience.
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