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Transcript of Electric Car
1835: Dutch professor Stratingh designed and built a small-scale electric car
1835, American, Thomas Davenport built another small-scale electric car
1899 and 1900: between these years, the electric car became popular, outselling all other types of cars
1900 - 1920: mainly designed for the upper class, expensive materials, fancy interior, production peaking in the year 1912
1930 - 1970: decline in electric cars (lower gas price, less range than gas cars, which were much cheaper than electric roadsters)
1970 - 1980: energy crisis brought back a short-lived interest in electric cars
2000s: advances in battery power/management and need to reduce greenhouse gases result in renaissance of electric cars Energy Efficiency Social Implications - Humans have relied on vehicles running on internal combustion engines
for more than 100 years (NYC, 2012)
- Over these 100 years, environmental issues, pollution persist because of the burning of fuels
- Many suggestions such as carpooling, public transit, cycling, walking
- Find alternative fueled vehicles that will not harm the environment,
But also reliable.
- People saw electric cars as an alternative to reduce pollution About the Electric Car use one or more electric/traction motors for propulsion
using electrical energy stored in batteries or other storage devices
popular starting in late 19th century and early 20th century
main types include all-electric vehicles,
hybrids History Cont. How Electric Cars Work The Role of Electric Cars - Electric cars are gaining popularity
- More on the road to replace gasoline running vehicles
- In the US, 40,000 plug-in electric
vehicles have been sold in the last
two years, and in one year, sales
tripled. (Sandy Bauers, 2012)
- There are reasons why people do not
like the idea of electric cars (get pricey, small range) relatively 65% more efficient
conventional gasoline enginesare around 15% efficient, (lose energy as heat)
electric motor efficiency is assumed to be 76.4–80.2% (Miller et. al., SAE 2011), efficient in converting stored energy
electric drive vehicles do not consume
energy while at rest or coasting
regenerative brakes capture the
energy lost while braking. It captures
one fifth of the energy normally lost
during braking. Regenerative brake conventional braking systems VS. regenerative brakes
energy converted into electric energy and stored, efficiency is about 20%
not as efficient as the friction brake at lower speeds
friction brakes are always required as a backup Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fisker_Karma_2.jpg http://news.xgo.com.cn/15/151051.html http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/History-Of-Electric-Vehicles.htm http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/Electric-Vehicles.htm
http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/History-Of-Electric-Vehicles.htm Costs cheap to expensive (ideally range from $25,000 - $65,000)
personal charging stations can vary between $1,000 up to $3,500 while limited public charging stations are spread across Canada
electricity costs will vary for each region, but cost relatively $0.11/kWh, meaning it may only cost $2.00 to $4.00 per full charge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_car less carbon dioxide and other green house gases.
however, not really zero carbon
pollutions are generated by plants.
reduce emissions of pollution when electricity came from clean, renewable energy
cannot reduce emissions of pollution when the electricity came from fossil fuel
An EV recharged from the US grid electricity
in 2008 emits about 115 g(CO2)/km
a conventional US-market gasoline powered
car emits 250 g(CO2)/km Environment http://web.mit.edu/evt/summary_wtw.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_car#Air_pollution_and_carbon_emissions http://www.bokbluster.com/category/economy/auto-industry/page/4/ The End 1. RANGE - Electric cars - 160-325 kilometers before recharging
- Gasoline Cars - Over 480 kilometers before refueling - Small range - Ideal for travelling in city, going around town - Not for long road trips
- Finding a charging station? 3. CHARGING TIME - Charging time is 4 to 8 hours for electric car
- Refueling time is 4 minutes for gasoline car 2. Charging Stations - The US Census has reported that there are approximately 125,000 filling stations across the United States.
- By the end of 2012, it is expected that there will be 13,000 electric car charge points. (Travis Okulski, 2011) http://biofriendly.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/electric-vehicle-EV-charging-station.jpg Affordability ideally around$25,000 - $65,000
In the United States, $7,500 tax credit for buying the Chevrolet Volt ($40,000), which brings it down to $32,500
Electricity is not expensive In Canada, $5,000 - $8,500 rebate depending on battery size, and car model
Affordable The Future - Batteries traction battery
generate power over sustained periods of time
smaller, lighter, but more powerful (specific energy)
Market: expected to be over
$37 billion in 2020
improvements... http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/d3e2f486303c1d47c12577a500479955.aspx http://ecomerge.blogspot.ca/2013/02/boeing-787-and-electric-car-lithium-ion.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EdisonElectricCar1913.jpg http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2011/12/10/seven-reasons-why-buying-an-electric-car-might-be-a-terrible-idea/ http://myskillweb.blogspot.ca/2010/12/electric-car-basic-knowledge.html Discussion Questions 1. After the decline of the electric car in the 1930s, the electric car experienced a renaissance in the early 2000s. What reasons may have caused the need for electric vehicles again?
2. What other means of saving energy, other than regenerative brakes, could be used in the design of an electric car?
3. Do you think electric cars will replace gas powered vehicles in the near future? Question 5 What is the purpose of the control? http://www.yaleclimatemediaforum.org/2009/09/hybrid-all-electric-vehicles/ http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/cosmicvariance/2009/08/21/test-drive-tesla-roadster/#.UUnSAFsjpRY http://www.thebuzzmedia.com/custom-diesel-electric-honda-insight-100mpg/ http://www.new-electric-cars.us/electric-cars-information-for-those-seeking-for-safety-cars-and-greener-future/