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Transcript of Africa
China’s is Sudan's largest
consumer of oil
China is Sudan’s largest
supplier of arms
Crisis in Darfur
Killed more than 400,000 and displaced more than 2,500,000 (United Human Rights Council)
China accused of supplying weapons despite UN established Arms Embargo
Example of Results from FOCAC
Beijing Declaration and the Program for China-Africa Cooperation in Economic and Social Development
cancelled RMB10.9 billion of debts for 31 African countries
set up an African Human Resources Development Fund
trained nearly 7,000 African professionals
special funds for Chinese investment
China’s Identification with the Global South
China chose to identify with the South – still developing nation – creates a common identity with Africa
'developing countries', 'Third World', 'the South‘
Fighting: first European colonial powers, then the USA or the USSR, finally simply the 'North‘
Appears genuine about commitment
Chinas's International Position to Assist Africa
Uses international standing to help Africa
Fairer global trade
Enlarge UN Security Council
Africa’s reform-oriented institutions
Involved in 9 peacekeeping missions – largest Liberia
Tull (2006): Between 1989 and 1997, the bilateral trade volume grew by 430% and since then has more than quintupled
A new scramble for Africa?
allies and geopolitical strategy
Changing aid norms
"In place of colonialism, as the main instrument of imperialism, we have today neo-colonialism . . . [which] like colonialism, is an attempt to export the social conflicts of the capitalist countries. . . .The result of neo-colonialism is that foreign capital is used for the exploitation rather than for the development of the less developed parts of the world"
-Kwame Nkrumah 1965
China In Africa
Africa's View of China
Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC)
October 2000 – four ministerial conferences
Came up with mechanism – practical cooperation between China and African countries
China - provide aid through: investments, debt elimination, job training, infrastructure, and medicine
“develop friendly relations and cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence so as to contribute to peace, stability and common prosperity around the world”
Sincerity, equality and mutual benefit, solidarity and common development
White Paper on China’s African Policy, January 2006
China created impression of big brother in the East
Does not impose neo-liberal view or make Africa adopt Western liberal democracy
Gives technology that West will not
Promotes Africa’s exportation of products and provides cheap imports
"Chinese Model" or "Beijing Consensus"
Identifies Africa’s problems as the legacy of colonialism
Never termed Africa a “hopeless continent”
Celebrate Africa’s culture and achievements
Acknowledges political indebtedness for getting into U.N. - West doesn’t acknowledge indebtedness for colonialism
Investments of direct benefit beyond elite circles
How China created a Positive Image in Africa
early 1958 -New China News Agency office in Cairo
Chinese publications in Africa:
the China Pictorial, Peking Review, Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-tung, Mao’s selected works, Swahili translations of Chinese poems for children, etc
2006 of the state-run China Radio International in Kenya
China’s interest in countering the West’s imperialist designs
China and the Mediascape – Banda (2009)
Three key areas of Chinese intervention in African media:
transmitters, towers, generators, antennae, satellite technology , fibre-optic communications FM transmitters
Training to journalists in China - not value-neutral; carries the cultural and political values
Media and communications infrastructure: Confucius Institutes
China Scholarship Council - cultural exchanges
China's Influence on Identity through Media
The Tanzam Railway
Rail system between Tanzania and Zambia spanning 1,160 miles
Funded, designed, and completed in 1975 by China
Total cost was approximately US$500 million
Political and social relevance
The "Uhuru Railway"
"Nyerere’s visit to China is an important matter to us. Tanzania and China are brothers. In the struggle
against imperialism, we are in the same camp. China’s experience will help to guard against new, old colonialism and imperialism, especially the American’s united front."
-National Assembly Speaker Adam Sapi Mkwasa, People's Daily
African state with the largest territory.
China's largest investor: $8 billion in 14 energy sector projects alone.
China National Petroleum Corporation has a 40% stake in Sudan's largest oil firm.
CNPC claims to have provided more than 100,000 jobs to the Sudanese, and 50% of it's revenues in Sudan go to the Sudanese government.
Western media has less of an influence in Sudan than the rest of Africa.
Whether or not people think that China practices neo-colonialism.
Respondents do not know the definition.
In international media, "it is often reduced to the exchange of manufactured goods for raw materials."
Respondents to the question are left up to come up with their own definitions or understandings of neo-colonialism.
250 different respondents: 150 undergraduates, 50 postgraduates, 50 faculty members in: Botswana, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan and Zambia.
Survey Results (without country)
First, they conducted the survey using variables for age, gender, education, and father's occupation.
Results: few significant variations caused by social factors.
Undergraduates compared to postgraduates and faculty were 17% more likely to view China's policies as beneficial, rather than both beneficial and harmful.
Males were 14% less likely than females to see China's policies as harmful, compared to Western policies.
Fathers occupation made absolutely no difference.
People over 55 were 9.6% more likely to think China's policies were more harmful than Western countries, and 4.4% more likely to view China as potentially harmful to Africa, compared to people who were under 25 years of age.
When there were demographic variations, the younger population and males tended to favor China than the older population and females.
Survey Results (with country)
When adding the country variable into regression equations for all of the questions, the effects of other variables, except for gender vanish.
Botswana and Zambians were the most negative about China-Africa links.
Kenyans, Sudanese and Ethiopians were much more positive.
Criticism from the West
Source: European Union to Delegation of Sudan
Land reform policies
Blacklisted by international community
Zimbabwe decided to
China's used veto power
to protect Zimbabwe
Image Source: Oxfam
Non-profit public institution of higher education aligned with the Chinese government.
Aimed at promoting Chinese language, culture, and facilitating cultural exchange.
Over 300 worldwide- 25 in Africa
Higher education is key to economic development
Benefits of Chinese Construction
Employ a large number of African construction workers.
Needs and desires of particular African societies are accomplished.
the first wave of decolonization in Africa in the 1950s did not bring communist ideologues to power.
the PRC won early praise by officially registering its opposition to apartheid at the UN in 1950.
China's own history of colonial domination meant that post colonial Africa had symbolic significance
Afro-Asian Conference, 1955
there was a strong inclination amongst Africa's first post-colonial leaders that they should unite in order to transcend the bipolar conflict (Bandung, Indonesia)
non-aggression and non-interference in internal affairs
Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, publicly international allies, privately ideological enemies
provided the greatest stimulus for Chinese involvement in the continent's politics. The CPC saw Africa as a key battleground for influence in the rest of the world
Three Worlds Theory
"[T]he greatest threat to world peace lies in the rivalry of the two super powers, the USSR and U.S., for world hegemony, whereas China and other Asian, African and Latin American countries constitute the "Third World." In order to oppose hegemonism in the interest of world peace, it is necessary for China to unite first and foremost the third world countries including African countries as well as the second world countries; and the more the better."
"In my view, the United States and the Soviet Union belong to the first world. The in-between Japan, Europe and Canada belong to the second world. The third world is very populous. Except Japan, Asia belongs to the third world. So does the whole of Africa and Latin America"
the Cultural Revolution
forcefully settled the question that had plagued the PRC in its early years - whether to lend support to more ideologically favorable insurgents in Africa, even if this involved alienating moderate governments with whom China had diplomatic relations. In countries where there was no absolute balance of power amongst domestic forces, China decided to take sides.
Has a significant amount rich resources, but 80% of the population lives below the poverty line
Michael Sata (leader of Patriotic Front party)
News from Western media sources
"Long Live the Victory of the People's War"
Lin contends that what happened in China before 1949 is now taking place on a global scale: the "world cities" are being encircled by the "world countryside."
the oppressed to rise against the oppressors
Temporary Retreat of China from Africa
"I have noticed one very odd thing about the international reactions to the railway project...Some (nations) suggest that by building this railway now, Tanzania and Zambia are coming under Chinese influence!...But this railway will be our railway...The PRC is giving an interest-free loan for the construction of the railway and provision of rolling stock... A gesture of international solidarity between the poor and the less poor of the world... When the Smith rebellion of 1965 was met by a policy of economic sanctions, the most immediate result was grave problems for newly-independent Zambia...A railway link to the port of Dar-es-Salaam is vital for the full implementation of Zambia's policy of linking herself to the free African states of the north." _ President of Tanzania, Julius Nyerere
realizing that petroleum was the country's only industry with the potential for immediate expansion-to benefit from existing reserves, and to tap new ones, China needed Western technology and know-how. And this, in turn, required a softening in China's foreign policy stance - most notably on the issue of Taiwan. As for Africa, it extended loans for access to technology and expertise in return for future exports of pre-existing oil reserves.
China is building another massive transport system.
31 mile road, 16 lanes.
Nairobi to Thika
Pros and Cons
By the early 1970s most African states had won their independence and were prioritizing economic growth over social revolution, which meant that those states still fighting for their independence needed heavy support from external allies - something China was unable to provide, given its own economic constraints.
-> Degraded China's position as a peripheral actor