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The Central & Autonomic Nervous System
Transcript of The Central & Autonomic Nervous System
Nervous System The Brain The Spinal Cord History & Discovery Homeostasis & the Autonomic Nervous System The Central Nervous System Consists
of the Brain and the Spinal Cord Brain Spinal Cord The Brain is formed by nerve tissue and acts as the coordinator
of the nervous
Within the closed skull, the brain is
surrounded by tough three layer
membrane known as the meninges. pia mater arachnoid mater dura mater Celebrospinal Fluid circulates through the meninges
of the brain and through the central spinal cord.
It acts a:
transport medium - to carry nutrients and waste The spinal cord carries sensory nerve messages from receptors
to the brain and relays motor nerve messages from the brain
to muscles, organs and glands. The spinal cord extends down through the opening of the skull, which is called the
foramen magnum. It extends downward
through a canal within the backbone. A cross section of the spinal cord shows two types of nerve tissue:
1: White matter - nonmyelinated interneurons
2: Grey matter - myelinated nerve fibres from sensory & motor neurons
Interneurons are oragnized into nerve tracts that connect the spinal cord with the brain
A dorsal nerve tract brings sensory information into the spinal cord
Ventral nerve tract carries motor information from the spinal to the organs of the body Human vs Animal Strength and Agility Hearing, Vision, Sense of Smell Reproduction Intelligence The human Brain comprises of
three distinct regions:
3. hindbrain forebrain midbrain hindbrain Cerebrum Olfactory Lobes- ares of the brain that process
information about smell. Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Motor area Control & movement of voluntary muscles Intellectual activities and personality Speaking Walking Sensory areas associated with hearing and advanced processing.vision.
Memory and interpretation of sensory information. Sensory areas associated with touch and temperature
Emotions and interpreting speech Vision and interpretation of visual information Pain & Orientation Largest and most highly developed part of the brain, which
stores sensory information and initiates voluntary motor activities. Corpus Callosum Nerve tract that joins the two celebral hemispheres Thalamus Area of the brain that coordinates and interprets sensory information and directs it to the cerebrum Cerebellum Part of the hind brain that controls limb movements,
balance and muscle tone. PONS Acts as a relay station by sending nerve messages between the cerebellum and the mendulla. Medulla Oblongata Region of the brain that joins the spinal cord to the cerebellum.
Region of autonomic nerve control Part of the peripheral nervous system.
Works with the endrocine system to adjust the body to changes in the
external and internal environment.
All autonomic nerves are motor nerves that regulate organs of the body
with out conscious control. The autonomic system is made up of two distinct,
and opposing units:
1. Sympathetic Nervous System - nerve cells of the
autonomic nervous system that prepare the body for
2. Parasympathetic nervous system - nerve cells of
autonomic nervous system that return the body to
normal resting levels after adjustments to stress.
Differences Effects of the autonomic Nervous System Natural & Artificial Painkillers There are two main types of natural painkillers in the human body 1. Endorphins
(1) Pain is interpreted by specialized cells in the substantia gelatinosa (SG) - a band of gelatinous matter in the dorsal part of the spinal cord.
(2) Stimulated SG cells produce a neurotransmitter that
"informs" the injured organ or tissue of the damage. (3) The greater the amount of pain transmitters attached to the injured organ
or tissue of that is damaged, the greater amount of the amount of the pain! However, when endorphins and enkephalins attach to receptor sites on the SG cell, the pain transmitter is not produced and pain is reduced. Artificial Painkillers Artificial Painkillers work in the same way that natural painkillers do.
Heroin, Codeine, and Morphine work in the same way as endorphins.
The intake in of Heroin, and other drugs not only reduce pain but also creates feeling of tranquility. Phineas Gage Wilder G. Penfield In 350 B.C., Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that the primary function of the brain was to cool the blood. (This thought persisted for 500 years)
Greek physician Galen speculated that the brain functioned as a hydraulic System, in which fluid was shot through a series of ducts.
In the early 17th century, French philosopher Rene Descartes associated the brain with coordinating sensory and motor activity. He believed that sensory information was stored in the brain and that motor function completed the loop.
In 1811, Franz Gall, a German physician suggested that sensory nerves stop at sections of the brain. This led to the idea that specific parts of the brain carry out specific functions.
Scientists believe that a large brain signified greater intellect. In fact, brain size is more often correlated with body size than with intelligence.