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Brendan Safr

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Fitness

Being an athlete, you need to know everything you can about your body. How it gets energy, exercises, and disposes of waste. So, you're an athlete, eh? The Respiratory System Circulatory System The respiratory system's function is to extract Oxygen from the atmosphere, and expel the waste byproducts of carbon dioxide and water. Even now that we have extracted oxygen and glucose, how now do we make sure that the entire body is supplied? That's where the circulatory system comes in; The circulatory system serves as a tranport medium for the body. Adenosine Triphosphate, or ATP, is a chemical compound which many living things use to make energy readily available. Composed of one adenine ring, one ribose sugar, and three groups of phosphates, energy is stored in the chemical bond between the phosphates. So, every time you do need energy, your body breaks down an ATP molecule, later on regenerating it by undergoing cellular respiration. But how does your body get the glucose and oxygen it needs? Since every individual cell in your body needs it's oxygen, the body has to figure out a way of getting that oxygen into itself. Many small organisms, such as worms or insects, breathe simply by having blood vessels close to their skin. This allows oxygen to easily diffuse into their bodies. Others, like fish, have gills: Areas of folded skin with lots of blood vessels for oxygen to diffuse right out of the water. But mammals, including humans, are simply too big for oxygen to move through our skin, and thus we all have lungs. To start, air enters our body through the mouth and/or nose, where it is either moistened and warmed by the mouth, or, if through the nose, also filtered by the sinuses. The air then continues through the pharynx, and larynx (voice box), to the trachea, which is lined with villi that catch any contaminants in the air, so that they may be coughed out later. Next it splits at the bronchi and enters the lungs. Inside the lungs are tubes which gradually get thinner and thinner and branch out more and more called bronchioles. This structure is designed to maximize the surface area, which it does very well, as the surface area of an average human lung is roughly equal to a tennis court! Finally, you exhale and the air travels back through the same pathways.
This entire process of breathing is controlled by the pressures in the pleural membrane, a membrane which sits underneath the ribcage and surrounds the lungs.
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles both modify the shape of the pleural membrane to force air in and out of the lungs. There are in fact four types of human respiration:
-Breathing: Air entering and leaving the body; Takes place in lungs
-External Respiration: Oxygen entering the blood, CO2 entering the lungs; Takes place in alveoli; AKA gas exchange
-Internal Respiration: Oxygen entering cells, CO2 entering blood; Takes place in veins
-Cellular Respiration: Production of ATP This is why piercing chest injuries are so dangerous, since not only do they directly damage the lung but they break the seal of the pleural membrane, preventing the lungs from expanding and sometimes causing them to collapse. Energy When you exercise, your body chemically produces and uses up energy. But, how does that energy translate into your muscles moving? What is it made of? All energy in the human body begins with cellular respiration. Now, when most people hear respiration they think of breathing, but cellular respiration is really the process by which your cell converts nutrients into energy which it can use to sustain life. Thus, each individual cell in your body will convert glucose (sugar), and oxygen into Carbon Dioxide waste, Water, and ATP Thus, when ATP is used, one of it's phosphates is broken off and the energy released can be used for bodily functions. The ATP then becomes Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), and a loose inorganic phosphate (Pi). These molecules are recombined during cellular respiration. At the end of the bronchioles are small thin sacs called alveoli. These are covered in capillaries, very thin blood vessels, which is where gas exchange takes place. Overall the process of respiration relies a lot on diffusion: The phenomena of particles wanting to have equal concentrations within their containers.
Thus, the only reason oxygen gets in your blood and carbon dioxide leaves it is because there is higher concentration of carbon dioxide and a lower of oxygen inside your body as opposed to the atmosphere. The Digestive System Now that we have oxygen, our body needs the second ingredient of cellular respiration, glucose. The digestive system's function is to extract nutrients from organic matter. There are four components of human digestion
-Ingestion: Taking in nutrients
-Digestion: Breakdown of nutrients
-Absorption: Moving nutrients so they may be used
-Egestion: Elimination of waste
Combined, all of these processes allow for the breakdown of large complex organic materials into smaller components to be used by the body Simple organisms, such as amoebas, engulf their food and contain it within a large vacuole, using lysosomes to break it down.
More complex organisms, however, have a digestive tract, organized so only certain functions and reactions happen in certain areas. Human's digestive system is quite complex Ingestion begins when food is bitten off by the teeth. The food is then digested, mechanically by the teeth, and chemically by the enzyme amylase in the saliva. Amylase breaks down complex carbohydrates, such as starch, into simple sugars. Finally, the food, lubricated by saliva, is swallowed by the tongue. The food, or bolus, travels over the epiglottis, a muscle designed to seal off the trachea while swallowing to prevent the inhalation of food. The blous then proceeds to travel through the esophagus, which uses a rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle, the peristaltic wave, to bring the bolus to the stomach. The cardiac sphincter of the stomach opens for the bolus, and the muscle layers begin to contract, further mechanically digesting the food. In the lining of the stomach are two cells, the chief, and the parietal. They produce hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme which begins protein digestion. Enzymes An enzyme is basically an organic catalyst, a material which remains unchanged, but which causes a chemical reaction. Digestive enzymes allow simple compounds, such as water, to enter in between two sections of a larger molecule, breaking it down.
Enzymes, which are proteins, are subject to denaturation, change in shape caused by environmental conditions. Essentially, enzymes are more effective at certain temperatures and pH After some time in the stomach, the broken down food enters the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. Here the gall bladder introduces bile salts through the bile duct, which emulsify fats.
Also in the duodenum, the pancreas, an organ which regulates blood sugar, releases more amylase, lipase for fats, and trypsin and chymotrypsin, which break down proteins into their constituent parts, amino acids. Now broken down as small as can be, the food travels through the rest of the small intestine, which is covered in tiny villi, which in turn sprout microvilli, which are all connected to blood capillaries. These, like the structure of the lungs, allow for maximum surface area so that the nutrients can be absorbed. Finally, with all nutrients absorbed, the waste travels up, across, and down the colon, which reabsorbs much of the water used for digestion. The waste exits out the rectum and anus. Muscles Now here's where the athlete bit comes in. How do your muscles use ATP? In the depths of your muscle fibres you eventually get down to the base unit of muscle, the sarcomere. When a muscle contracts, ATP breaks into ADP and Pi causing the myosin filaments to ratchet forward against the actin, causing movement. This "power stroke" repeats several times per contraction, ratcheting further and further up the actin filament. Thus, when you excercise, you body uses up loads of ATP. But why then do my muscles hurt when I perform? These muscle fibers can be very deep in your tissues, and thus the respiration and circulatory systems do not have enough time to meet the demand of the muscles during sudden activity. Thus, here we come to the difference between aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. Aerobic, which uses oxygen, is the normal cellular respiration process I spoke of at the beginning of this presentation.
Anaerobic respiration, however, creates ATP without need for oxygen Thankfully your muscles keep small stores of ATP within them, but they barely last 3 seconds. Thus, the muscles start using anaerobic methods of respiration, which last about 1.5 minutes, and produce lactic acid. Lactic acid is what causes your muscles pain.
Muscles are composed of bundles of muscle fibers, extremely long multinucleated cells whose cytoplasms consist of sarcomeres arranged in a skeletal structure, which allows the entire cell to contract.
This reassembly will be directed at whatever in your body needs repair. If you make sure that your muscles are what demands repair most, you will grow muscle. So wait, what are muscles actually made of? Since this cellular structure is composed of proteins, the best thing you can do to increase muscle mass is to consistently put the muscle under tension (work out), and make sure you eat lots of proteins. Thankfully, when you begin to exercise, your brain automatically activates your respiratory, circulatory, and other organs to keep up with your muscles so that after that 1.5 minutes you have oxygen. Eventually your body will have to stop and recover, but with training you can extend your body's capacity and tolerance of anerobic respiration enzymes and lactic acid. In the digestive system, proteins you eat are decomposed into their base units, amino acids, so that they may be reassembled as needed. This decomposition is done in the stomach, with pepsin. Pepsin is a digestive enzyme which prefers and acidic environment, thus your chief cells create HCl during digestion. Aquatic organisms, such as fish, simply use water to carry nutrients throughout their bodies, and thus do not need a complex circulatory system. Other organisms like snails use an "open circulatory system," a low pressure system where the vessels open into one large chamber which bathes the cells with blood. Larger organisms, however, use closed circulatory systems which pump blood through vessels. Human Blood There are four main components to human blood: Plasma: 90% water, this acts as a general fluid for which the other components can flow through Erythrocytes, or Red Blood Cells: These cells transport oxygen from the lungs with their hemoglobin, which can bind up to four oxygen molecules. Leukocytes, or White Blood Cells: Numerous types, all designed to seek and destroy invading organisms (viruses, etc). Platelets: Protein fragements with an irregular shape designed to form clots in the event of a vessel breakage. Blood Vessels Three types of blood vessel: Artery: Carries blood away from heart, has a high pressure Capillary: So thin only one erythrocyte can fit at a time, allows for diffusion Vein: Carries blood back to heart, prevents back flow. Vasoconstriction/vasodilation: Blood vessels will tighten and loosen in response do different factors such as exercise or temperature The Heart This is the main organ of this system, as it causes the movement of blood. Blood enters the heart through the vena cava into the right atrium, goes through the AV valve to right ventricle, and is pumped towards lungs. When oxygenated blood returns it enters the left atrium, goes through the AV valve to the left ventricle, and is pumped towards the rest of the body out of the aorta. This process is called your pulse. The pulse rate is set by the SA node, a nerve center found behind the right atrium. The signal it generates is relayed to the AV node, which relays it throughout the cardiac muscle to control its contractions. Heart health can be measured in the form of blood pressure, or how much pressure the heart muscle exerts on the walls of the arteries. La Fin - Best of luck in your athletic career!
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