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Transcript of Positive Discipline
Discipline A model by:
H. Stephen Glenn A History of Positive Discipline The Positive Discipline Parenting and Classroom Management Model is based on the work of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs. Dr. Adler first introduced the idea of parenting education to United States audiences in the 1920s. He advocated treating children respectfully, but also argued that spoiling and pampering children was not encouraging to them and resulted in social and behavioral problems. The classroom techniques, which were initially introduced in Vienna in the early 1920s, were brought to the United States by Dr. Dreikurs in the late 1930s. Dreikurs and Adler refer to the kind and firm approach to teaching and parenting as “democratic.” In the 1980’s, Lynn Lott and Jane Nelsen attended a workshop facilitated by John Taylor. Lynn began training interns to teach experientially and wrote (with the help of her interns) the first Teaching Parenting Manual. Jane was the director of Project ACCEPT (Adlerian Counseling Concepts for Encouraging Parents and Teachers), a federally funded project that had received exemplary status while in its developmental phase. Jane wrote and self-published Positive Discipline in 1981. It was published by Ballantine in 1987. In 1988, Jane and Lynn decided to collaborate on the book which is now titled, Positive Discipline for Teenagers, and began to teach parenting and classroom management skills experientially. Lynn and Jane also wrote Positive Discipline in the Classroom and developed a manual filled with experiential activities for teachers and their students. - 5 Criteria for Positive Discipline 1. Be Kind
2. Belonging and Significance
3. Tools Work Long Term
4. Valuable and Life Skills
5. Children Develop A Sense
That They Are Capable Tools and Concepts of
Positive Discipline Mutual respect. Adults model firmness by respecting themselves and the needs of the situation, and kindness by respecting the needs of the child.
Identifying the belief behind the behavior. Effective discipline recognizes the reasons kids do what they do and works to change those beliefs, rather than merely attempting to change behavior.
Effective communication and problem solving skills.
Discipline that teaches (and is neither permissive nor punitive).
Focusing on solutions instead of punishment.
Encouragement (instead of praise). Encouragement notices effort and improvement, not just success, and builds long-term self-esteem and empowerment. A SCHOOL WIDE PROGRAM In a Positive Discipline School,
Every Adult... Understands that the quality of relationships and school climate are absolutely critical to successful student learning.
Seeks to establish strong meaning and connection for students, families and staff in social academic contexts.
Implements principles of mutual respect and encouragement.
Focuses on long term, solutions to misbehavior at individual, class and school wide levels.
Views mistakes as opportunities to learn and misbehavior as opportunities to practice critical life skills.
Questions the tradition of adult control, rewards and punishments. Focus on Solutions The theme for focusing on solutions is: What is the problem and what is the solution?
Children are excellent problem solvers and have many creative ideas for helpful solutions when adults provide opportunities for them to use their problem solving skills. The Three R's and an H for Focusing on Solutions: R- related
H- helpful Consequences Make them write their names on the board Make them stay after school the same amount of minutes they were late Take away from tomorrow the same amount of minutes they were late today Take away all of tomorrows recess Yell at them Forget about consequences and brainstorm for solutions that would help the late students get to class on time Everyone could yell together "BELL!" The students could play closer to the bell The students could watch others to see when they are going in Adjust the bell so it is louder The students could choose a buddy to remind them when it is time to come in Someone could tap the students on the shoulder when the bell rings Solutions The first list sounds like punishment. It focuses on the past and is making children pay for their mistakes. The second list looks and sounds like solutions that focus on helping the students do better in the future. The focus is on seeing problems as opportunities for learning. In other words, the first list is designed to hurt; the second is designed to help. Brainstorm logical consequences for two fifth graders who didn't hear the recess bell and were late to class Nelson, Lott, and Glenn's Central Focus Helps teachers develop classrooms where students are treated respectfully and taught the skills needed for working with others. These are classrooms where students:
1. Never experience humiliation when they fail but instead learn how to turn mistakes into successes
2. Learn how to cooperate with teachers and fellow students to find joint solutions to problems
3. Are provided an environment that instills excitement for life and learning in place of fear, discouragement, and feelings of inadequacy. Class Meetings Class meetings are uniquely suited to implementing Positive Discipline in the Classroom. Although the meetings are not a cure-all, they significantly promote social skills such as listening, talking, taking turns, hearing different points of view, negotiating, communicating, helping one another, and taking responsibility for one's own behavior. Academic skills are strengthened in the process as well because students must practice language skills, attentiveness, critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving, all of which enhance academic performance. Class Meetings Class meetings also alter students' perception of teachers by helping students see that teachers and other adult need nurturing and encouragement just as much as they do. When teachers involve themselves as partners with students in class meetings, a climate of mutual respect is encouraged. Teachers and students listen to one another, take each other seriously, and work together to solve problems for the benefit of all. Antagonists so often seen in most classrooms tend to fade away. Nelson, Lott, and Glenn have identified three perceptions and four skills that contribute to the special benefits of Positive Discipline in the Classroom. They call these perceptions and skills the significant seven. The Significant Empowering Perceptions The Class meetings help students develop three self-perceptions that lead to success in life: 1. Perception of personal capabilities
(I have ability; I can do this) 2. Perception of significance in primary relationships
(I am needed; I belong) 3. Perception of personal power to influence one's life
(I have control over how I respond to what happens to me) The Essential Skills Class meetings help students develop four essential skills that contribute significantly to success in life: 1. Intrapersonal Skill.
(I understand my emotions and can control myself) 2. Interpersonal Skill.
(I can communicate, cooperate, and work with others) 3. Strategic Skills.
(I am flexible, adaptable, and responsible) 4. Judgmental Skill.
(I can use my wisdom to evaluate situations) Building Block 1: Form a Circle The first step in implementing class meetings is to establish an atomosphere that allows everyone an equal right to speak and be heard and where win-win solutions can take place. A circular seating arrangement serves best. Ask students for suggestions about how to form the circle, listen to them, and write their ideas on the board. Make decisions based on their suggestions. Building Block 2: Practice Giving Compliments
and Showing Appreciation It is important to begin class meetings on a positive note, which can be accomplished by having students and teacher say complimentary things to each other. Many students at first have difficulty giving and receiving compliments. Practice helps. Building Block 3: Create an Agenda All class meetings should begin with a specific agenda. When students and teachers experience concerns, they can jot them down in a special notebook. This can be done at a designated time and place, such as when students leave the room. The class meetings will address only the concerns that appear in the notebook. Building Block 4: Develop Communication Skills Nelson, Lott, and Glenn suggest a number of activities for developing communication skills, such as taking turns speaking (begin by going around the circle and letting each person speak), listening attentively to what others say, learning to use I-statements (saying "I think," "I feel," and so forth), seeking solutions to problems rather than placing balme on others, showing respect for others by never humiliating or speaking judgementally about them, learning how to seek and find win-win solutions to problems, and framing conclusions in the form of "we decided," showing it was a group effort and conclusion. Building Block 5: Learn about Separate Realities Teachers focus on helping students understand that not everyone is the same or thinks the same way. Nelson, Lott, and Glenn describe an activity that poses problem situations involving turtles, lions, eagles, and chameleons. Students discuss how each would probably feel, react, and deal with the problem. This can lead to helping students see that different people perceive situations, feel, and react in different ways. Building Block 6: Recognize the Five Reasons People Do What They Do Ask students if they have ever wondered why people do what they do. Ask for their ideas, acknowledge them, and then ask if they have ever heard of the primary goal of belonging and the four mistaken goals of misbehavior. Proceed by using examples to illustrate the goal of belonging and the mistaken goals of undue attention, power, revenge, and giving up. Building Block 7: Practice Role-Playing and Brainstorming By the third class meeting, students are usually ready to begin considering problems and seeking solutions to them. Here are some suggestions for exploring problems in a tactful manner:
1. Discuss the key elements of the problem situation.
2. Have students act out roles involved in the problem.
3. Brainstorm a number of possible solutions to the difficulty or problem and allow students to select a solution they believe will work best. Building Block 8: Focus on Nonpunitive Solutions Ask students the following and write their answers on the board: "What do you feel like when someone bosses you? What do you want to do? What do you want to do when someone calls you names or puts you down? When others do these things to you, does it help you behave better?" Then ask them how their behavior is affected when someone is kind to them, helps them, or provides stimulation and encouragement. Have them compare their answers which you have written on the board. Use the comparison to draw attention to the value of encouragement verses punishment. Once students have indicated support for classroom meetings, decide together when the meetings will be held. Preferences vary from weekly half-hour meetings, to three shorter meetings per week. A meeting every day is advisable for the first week, as students learn the eight building blocks. Standard Format for Class Meetings 1. Express compliments and appreciation.
2. Follow up on earlier solutions applied to problems.
3. Go through agenda items.
4. Make future plans for class activities. Moving Beyond Consequences Involve students in the solutions
When students participate in finding solutions to behavioral problems, they strengthen communication and problem solving skills. They also are more likely to abide by agreements they have helped plan. Because they are made to feel part of the classroom community, they have less reason to misbehave and are more willing to work on solutions to problems Focus on the future instead of the past Make connections between opportunity, responsibility, and consequence Be sure you don't piggyback Plan solutions carefully in advance When teachers apply logical consequences, they often are likely to be focusing on the past behavior the student has already committed. Rather than that, teachers should ask students to look to the future, thinking of solutions that will improve conditions in days to come. Nelson, Lott, and Glenn do not say that students should never experience logical consequences. Students need to learn that every new opportunity they encounter brings with it a related responsibility. If students are unwilling to take on the responsibility, they should not be allowed the opportunity. To piggy back is to add something to a consequence that isn't necessary and may actually be hurtful, such as, "Maybe this will teach you!" or, "You can just sit there and think about what you did!" Teachers who use piggybacking make punishment out of what would otherwise be a solution or even a respectful consequence A good way to prevent punishment's creeping into solutions is to plan out the solution in advance with student collaboration. During a class meeting, ask students to think about what sort of solutions would actually help them learn. Make the questions specific. Putting It All Together It takes time. Don't get discouraged Trust in the procedure Think long term, not short term convenience Have faith in student/teacher cooperation Be willing to give up control over students Ask questions about students' thoughts and opinions STRENGTHS students learn to accept responsibility and take positive control of their behavior Students learn important life skills when they help each other find positive solutions to problems There is a positive relationship between the teacher and the students Using the program causes less behavioral problems in the classroom and more instruction time. Weaknesses Time Consuming Over Permissiveness Takes lots of practice Students may become too sensitive Unrealistic Would you use Positive Discipline in your classroom? Primary
Grades Dr. Nelsen on Positive Discipline http://faculty.washington.edu/dcheney/EDSPE503ClassroomManagement/Readings/NelsenChapter.pdf http://blog.positivediscipline.com/ http://youtu.be/ZiuAFOv8wvw http://youtu.be/T4ATYLnzoe4 http://youtu.be/f-e4H2rsEww SOURCES