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Ism-a guide to ideology
Transcript of Ism-a guide to ideology
I already am eating from the trash can all of the time. The name of this trash can is ideology. The material force of ideology makes me not see what I am effectively eating. It’s not only our reality which enslaves us. The tragedy of our predicament when we are within ideology is that when we think that we escape it into our dreams at that point we are within ideology.
The birth of ideology
.Before the French Revolution, the world was mostly divided into religions which drove conflict.
.There were eventually two political stances, republicanism and monarchism, the latter being more dominant.
.The French Revolution brought on two separations between the people of France and later the world however, namely, if men are equal or unequal, and if the government should have little power or more power
.This gave birth to the separation of political discourse into two divisions, the left-wing and right-wing, and authoritarians and libertarians
Meaning of these divisions
The left-wing describes the divisions currents of political thought that believes humans are of equal value. This could mean that they should be all be protected by the law or that they should equal pay or that they should share all property.
The right-wing describes the current of political thought that thinks humans are of unequal value. This could mean humans should not be given equal pay or they should not have help from the government or that they should be removed from a country.
Authoritarians believe that a strong administration is needed to bring order to society, and are okay with restrictions on free speech or activities one can do in a country
Libertarians believe that people do not need a government, and promote voluntary choice and freedom
Libertarians can be left or right wing, as can Authoritarians and vise versa
The authoritarian right-wing
The authoritarian right-wing grew out of monarchists that viewed the French revolution as a crazy attempt to refute god's will.
Social views: They feel that humans are born unequal, and that people of higher worth should not share power with lower peoples. Uphold traditional culture and national heritage as important ideals. Unsupportive of immigration, acceptance movements, and social reform.
Economic views: of all political ideologies, the AR is the most diverse in economic views, and can vary from planned economies to religious ones to laissez faire. Most, however, support a state capitalist economy, in which private corporations work with the government to manage the economy. Opinions vary on welfare.
Political views: The AR are far more likely to support a monarchy then any other political sect, and think they should have many national powers. Others however have supported Presidential dictatorships or Fascist republics. Feel that the state's purpose is to bring unity among the people, and should be allowed to repress people undeserving of the right to speak.
Military views: Often promote war as a rational way of dealing with conflicts and see the nation's military as it's strength and pride
Sections of the authoritarian right
Fascism advocates a Authoritarian republic or monarchy based on cooperation between social classes to build order and unity. Often they seek revival of past glory and promote elitism. They view democracy as a flawed way of determining national issues and support a elite council to make decisions rather then the populous. They see nations as being determined by genes rather then lines on a map, and thus, that nations are like animals that compete for honor and resources and that racial mixing is as bad as two species intermating. Support war as the main way of diplomacy(direct action).
Italian Fascism: The original form of fascism that evolved out of Italian socialists that became right-wingers. Support a corporatist economy, in which corporations represent the political interests of the workers they employ and cooperate with the state. Popular among Catholic European countries in the 1930s, had an offshoot called Falangism in Spain and Latin America, one in Argentina called Peronism, and one in Austria called Austrofascism
Nazism: The ideology developed by the Nazi party, differing from Italian fascism in support for a more planned economy and larger stress on race, viewing "Aryans"(Referring to Romance and Germanic europeans) as the "master race". Seen in protestant countries more often then not
Strasserism: An off-shoot of Nazism that saw to more even further away from Italian corporatism and to a communist-influenced planned, worker-run economy. A very similar ideology called National Bolshevism developed in Russia after the USSR fell.
While fascism is mostly a European ideology, racialism of non-white ethnic groups have had small parties outside of Europe, the most notable being the Taisei Yokusankai in Japan during World War 2, which stressed loyalty to the emperor and the strength of the "Yamato Race", as well as liberation of Asian colonies from European powers.
Turanism was a offshoot of Fascism in Turkey and Hungry which saw the "Turanid race" as the master race, which included all Ural–Altaic speaking groups, comprising of countries as different as Finland, Turkmenistan, and Mongolia.
Ba'athism: While not directly related to fascism, this Arab ideolgy also combined socialist economics with unequal rule, and saw to unite the Arab states into one republic. Found power in Iraq and Syria
Some Mexican fascists have adopted the term "bronze race" or "cosmic race" to refer to mestizos and native Americans.
Jews even have a fascist platform called "revisionist zionism" which sees to expands Israel's territory to Jordan
Monarchism: Support a monarchy
Constitutional Monarchism: Support a monarchy regulated by a constitution, and often limit the power of the monarch. Support a more liberal government then other ARs. Seen in European monarchies of today
Absolute Monarchism: Support a Absolute monarch with more defined class divisions. See kings as having divine right to rule however they please. Value self-sufficient economic rule, religious unity, cultural unity, and high culture. Seen in Tsarist Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Imperial Japan
Elective Monarchism: Support a monarch elected by a council of nobility. Seen in Modern Cambodia and Malaysia.
Authoritarian Conservatism: Support a republic that protects traditional national values and interests.
Liberal conservatism: Stress tradition and respect for authority, while advocating a laissez-faire economy, with the government's only purpose to maintain order and a army. Seen in the Republican party in the US and the conservative parties of the UK and Canada
National conservatism: A more radical variant of Liberal conservatism that advocates laissez-faire economies at home, but protectionist trade policies, as they fell foreign markets disrupt national ones. May incorporate racial nationalism and ethnic pride. Common among anti-EU european parties
Traditionalism: Reject enlightenment ideals like individualism and social progress. Seek to revive pre-enlightenment interest in values like the church, the state, and family. View the "modern world" as a enemy of "high culture" and tradition, citing a decline in artistic value in the modern age.
Religious conservatism: Seeks to teach religious values or use them in law-making
Progressive conservatism: Endorse a "social safety net", meaning limited government regulations on the economy in order to ensure that the population of a country doesn't fall below a certain poverty line. Seen in the rules of Winston Churchill and Theodore Roosevelt
Religious Fundamentalism: Sees the holy books of religions as the sole source of law and doesn't tolerate religious freedom. The ideology is most commonly associated with Islam, but fundamentalists of other religious also exist, like the LRA in Uganda.
Dark Enlightenment: A "reverse enlightenment" based on the concept of "human biodiversity", that genes are the sole determining factor of most human interactions, and advocates for a eugenics-based society to produce a higher quality population. States that people under a 120 IQ are natural slaves undeserving of freedom. Sees modern culture as belonging to "The Catherdal" a body of non-rational dogmas of equality that are treated like a godless religion.
The Libertarian Right
The libertarian right finds its origins in the enlightenment thinkers of Europe who called for a free market and free speech.
Political views: Right libertarians hold liberty and competition as their highest values. Although they think humans are of unequal worth, they differ from the authoritarian right in that they express this as coming from what they amount to after birth rather then what they are at birth. They view the government's role is only to provide supplies like military protection that the market can not produce, and feel it has no right to take or give anything from businesses or individuals. They feel all actions should be voluntary.
Economic views: right libertarians support a free market where business owners have unlimited freedom to make profit. Some moderate ones may support minimum safety regulations, a small minimum wage, and small welfare programs, but more radical ones will not.
Social views: Like authoritarians, the LR holds tradition as a high value, unlike them however, they don't intend on enforcing this. While they don't support laws to discriminate against minorities, they also feel that laws protecting them from discrimination are unfair as they are already equal under the law and don't need additional protection. Generally allow regulated immigration.
Military views: The LR often supports military intervention in dictatorships, but also may support pacifism.
Leaders of the authoritarian right
Frederick the Great-King of Prussia who ruled as a absolute monarch influenced by Enlightenment ideas, praised as a effective commander and administrator by Germans in the past and present
Infante Carlos-A pretender to the Spanish thrown who belonged to a absolute monarchist and traditionalist movement called Carlism, fought Liberals in the First Carlist War
Winston Churchill-Prime Minister of the UK during WW2, influential conservative-party member
Benito Mussolini-"II Duce del Fascismo" of Italy, first fascist leader to rise to power in the world and one of the ideology's founders
Ruhollah Khomeini-The first supreme leader of Iran as a Islamic republic, central frigure in Cold War politics by proposing Islamic fundamentalism as a alternative to capitalism and communism
Sections of the libertarian right
Classic Liberalism: Enlightenment ideology based on liberty, property, and freedom. Holds the individual as the most important political figurehead
Libertarian conservatism: While keeping true to the economic base of liberalism, this promotes traditional values like family and religion
Paleoconservatism: A form of conservative liberalism more radically objecting to government intervention, criticizing any thing resembling a welfare state, and more radically upholding traditional values, questioning multiculturalism, interventionism, and social justice. Developed in the Southern US
Minarchism: A almost anarchist form of liberalism which holds the state is only meant to provide protection from war and crime for the people.
Objectivism: A ideology based on the idea that "reality exists independent of consciousness" and humans are the masters of their reality and can mold it to be whatever they want, thus that a man's goal is to pursuit his own happiness and the only system that can do this is laissez-faire capitalism. Founded by Ayn Rand
Thatcherism: A Libertarian conservative ideology based on the rules of British PM Margaret Thatcher and American President Ronald Reagan based on small taxes, privatization of industry, nationalism, military internationalism, populism, and repressing of trade unions
Anarcho-capitalism: Offshoots of liberalism that hold government to be completely unnecessary, and that they only disturb the free market and people's rights to property and liberty
Voluntaryism: Holds that all forms of human association should be voluntary, all forms of taxation are inherently immoral and theft, and believes in the non-aggression principle, a moral stance which asserts that aggression is inherently illegitimate. Founded by Murray Rothbard
Agorism: a form of Voluntaryism influenced by leftist ideas of alternative ways of management, most importantly, favoring direct democracy over voting. Also adds the tenet of "counter-economics", economics similar to a black market that favors taking financial risks to make profit. Founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III
Ur fascism: A anti-capitalist ideology that calls for a return to tribal links rather then a fascist state to bring order.
Leaders of the libertarian right
Ronald Reagan-President of the United States that arguably ended the Cold War, hailed as a champion of liberty by right libertarians
Margaret Thatcher-The "Iron Lady" that was Prime Minister of the UK in the 1980s, ruled very similar to Reagan
Simón Bolívar-Colombian/Venezuelan independence leader and first president of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolvia(named after him), Ecuador, and Panama, influenced by the American revolution to make a liberal democracy in South America. Despite being a right liberal, individuals from all sides of the political spectrum praise him.
Maria Christina-Regent of Isabella II of Spain who fought aganist the Carlists in the Carlist wars, favored a progressive consitutional monarchy over the Carlist's absolute monarchy
German Führer Adolf Hitler (right) beside Italy's Duce Benito Mussolini
Ludwig von Mises
"The search, the striving for, the obsession with real freedom is a malformed ideal, which needs to constantly be routed. Real freedom leads to misery for most, because most are simply not capable of transforming that freedom into a strident pursuit of the good, of the good life. You’re miserable because you’re free."-Aimless Gromar
"We do not believe in government through the voting booth. The Spanish national will was never freely expressed through the ballot box. Spain has no foolish dreams."-Francisco Franco
Propaganda of the authoritarian right
If a man has the right to self-ownership, to the control of his life, then in the real world he must also have the right to sustain his life by grappling with and transforming resources; he must be able to own the ground and the resources on which he stands and which he must use. In short, to sustain his "human right."-Murray Rothbard
"Capitalism is the only system where such men are free to function and where progress is accompanied, not by forced privations, but by a constant rise in the general level of prosperity, of consumption and of enjoyment of life."-Ayn Rand
Propaganda of the libertarian right
The Authoritarian Left
Political views: The authoritarian left upholds freedom and equality as it's highest values, and enforces these values by force, usually by a one-party state. They see the enlightenment idea of liberty to be flawed because it doesn't include freedom from the oppressive opinions of others and non-government-enforced oppression, like corrupt CEOs, poverty, racism, and misogyny. They see to stomp done on such things, which requires a state to kill them off. Because of this idea of liberation, many authoritarian leftists don't regard their actions as undemocratic or dictatorial.
Economic views: Left authoritarians support a planned economy which is controlled by the government to ensure resources are distributed where they are needed more. They see markets as illogical as self-interest doesn't necessarily promote the greater good of the people.
Social views: The AL and their libertarian counter-parts has a rich history of being in the foreground of most modern rights movements, leaders like Malcolm X and Helen Keller had great simplify for the socialists movements of their days, and many ex-colonies followed a socialist model like Vietnam, Angola, and Albania followed a socialist model after liberation.
Military views: The AL supports militarizes as a heroic defense of the revolution and workers. They see war as a tool of the most power of society to benefit off the death of others, and thus support pacifism and only go to war when provoked.
""You are dictatorial." My dear sirs, you are right, that is just what we are. All the experience the Chinese people have accumulated through several decades teaches us to enforce the people's democratic dictatorship, that is, to deprive the reactionaries of the right to speak and let the people alone have that right."-Mao Zedong
The political left-wing is in someways both more politically unified then the right and in someways more politically disunified
This is due to the fact all left-wing ideologies are of the same origin unlike the right-wing, that of the radical French republicans who wanted a truely equal society, not only in voting, but in representation and rights. As time progressed and radical republicanism was fused the new ideal of socialism, socialist communities founded the International Workingmen's Association, now refereed to as the First international. During the fifth congress of the IWA, two of it's major figureheads, Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx, clashed over disagreements on what role the government should have. Bakunin wanted no government, which he saw as inherently oppressive, while Marx said a state was necessary to eventually achieve a classless, stateless society. Thus the IWA split into Anarchists who followed Bakunin, and Marxists(refereed to as Leninists later on. who followed Marx. such splits would characterize the socialist movement up to the modern age).
The Libertarian Left
Political views: The LL supports nearly exact same views as the authoritarian left, but see that people do not need a strong government to enforce them. They favor direct democracy in small communes to decide the goals of the revolution.
Economic views: Left libertarian support a planned economy decided by mutual agreement by communes and people, or gift economies where produces are simply given to where they are needed as a act of compassion rather then for other rewards.
Social views: The LL also has a rich history of activism. While state socialism became popular among ex-colonies and woman's rights, libertarian leftists have been more credited with influence in the indigenous rights movements of the Americas and the LGBT movement.
Military views: The LL largely doesn't support professional armies, rather, they support a network of guerrillas and armed civilians for defense of revolution. A common slogan is "no war but class war" to define all wars other then the rebellion of the working class is inherently imperialist and not benefit.
"The inherent tendency of the State is to concentrate, to narrow, and monopolize all social activities; the nature of revolution is, on the contrary, to grow, to broaden, and disseminate itself in ever-wider circles. In other words, the State is institutional and static; revolution is fluent, dynamic."-Emma Golman
"Crowned heads, wealth and privilege may well tremble should ever again the Black and Red unite!"-Otto Von Bismarck, upon hearing of the split in the First International
Socialism has been adapted into other ideologies.These are separated from Marxism or left-anarchism by (1)compromise with capitalism or markets, (2)denouncing both ideologies,(3)religious narratives, or (4)definition of a vanguard other then the working class
Democratic socialism: Socialists who favor capitalist elective governments, rather then one-party rule or direct democracy, but still favor authoritarian rule and a planned economy to stop oppression. Recently popular in Latin America due to Hugo Chavez's sect of the ideology called "Socialism for the 21st Century"
Social democracy: The more libertarian and liberal form of democratic socialism, endorsing a large welfare-state and equal rights for all people regard less of gender, race, orientation, etc. Adopted by the communists party of Eastern Europe after the revolutions of 1989 and by left-wing liberal parties in the West.
Eurocommunism: "Social democracy on crack" An offshoot of Western Marxism which held that communist revolution could succeed via liberal capitalist elections.
Titoism: A technically "Marxist-Leninist ideology" in name, but not generally regarded as such. Core tenets are cooperative multiculturalism, workers self-managing factories, neutrality in international relations, and a internal socialist economy operating in a global market economy.
Socialism with Chinese characteristics: The ideology of the Chinese communist party since the death of Mao Zedong, which opened China's markets to foreign trade and largely abandoned most principals of communism while keeping a strong, authoritarian government.
Mutualism: An left-influenced market ideology that denounces private property and public property in favor of personal property, where the means of production are held by labors that sell their value on the free market. Founded by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
Post-Leftism: A "non-ideology" born out of criticism of traditional socialism, particularly it's continuation of the need for increasing production, it's failure to recognize individual rights, it's stress on "identity politics", and the inability to stop environmental destruction.
Primitivism: A very radical anarchist movements that states that the agricultural revolution and thereby the move away from hunter-gather societies and the creation of civilization is the sole cause of the rise of state oppression, sexism, inequality, and environmental destruction and advocats for abandoning technology and a return to being "uncivilized"
Islamic socialism: A religious socialist ideology founded on liberation of Islamic colonies in Africa and Asia, stressing the Islamic pillar of Zakāt, the giving of wealth to the poor.
Christian communism: A mostly anarchist ideology, based on the role of Jesus as an enemy of the state that was hanged for his calls for equality and liberation and communal principals of early Christians.
Juche: The state ideology of North Korea after abandoning Marxism-Leninism in 1992, which states that the state army, rather then workers, are the Vanguard of revolution, isolationism, and massive stress on the role of the Party head as the sole voice of the people.
Gandiism: A pacifist socialist ideology left by Mahatma Gandhi which stresses non-violence, self-sufficiency and truthful politics
Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Russian revolution, built on Marx's theories and restressed that a strong authoritarian state must exist for society to reorganize into communism, calling libertarian Marxism and anarchism "An Infantile Disorder". Like in the First International, Leninism would split three times.
Trotskyism and Stalinism: When Lenin died, two communist party members, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, were seen to be candidates to succeed him. Trotsky had denounced Stalin for his opinion that the Peasantry could stand by itself as a revolutionary class without help from the proletariat(industrial workers) and his policy of "socialism in one country" saying that revolution must be permanent and constantly expand to new countries. Stalin eventually rose to power and exiled Trotsky to Mexico. Stalin remained popular in freed poorer countries like China, Vietnam, and Albania without a strong industrial working class while Trotsky found support among first world western Marxists
Maoism and Khrushchevism: Nikita Khrushchev became leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin's death and denounced Stalin as a tyrant, established friendlier relations with Western nations, and liberalized Soviet economic and political rights. These reforms angered the hardline Leninists of Mao Zedong and Enver Hoxha in the newly-established Chinese and Albanian socialist republics, who followed Stalin due to having largely feudal countries and a large peasant class. Mao and Hoxha broke off all ties with the Soviet Union. The result was Maoism, a populous communist ideology based on full cooperation between the people and the party, as well as direct democracy, called "self-criticism". Mao also developed the idea of cultural revolution, which aimed to get rid of bigoted reactionary thinking by abandoning old ideas and moving to a single global culture, a communist culture. From then of, Mao and Hoxha refered to the USSR as a "state capitalist" and "social-imperialist". Siad Barre of Somalia and Pol Pot of Cambodia would also go on to support China
Maoism and Hoxhaism: A later part of Maoism, Mao concluded the "Three worlds theory", this stated that there was a "First world" the US and USSR, a "Second world" their European allies, and a "Third World" which were politically neutral countries and poor ex-colonies subject to puppet dictatorships by the superpower. Mao said that the third world was a revolutionary base and that the proletariat of the first and second world was inherently unrevolutionary as they benefit from exported labor in the third world. Mao however, used this to lead a alliance with US to help Maoist movements in Africa and Cambodia aganist the USSR. Hoxha was bitter about this new co-existence Mao preached, saying he cared too much about expanding he's movements influence then about revolution, pointing that his ally Pol Pot was using reactionary racial polices and being funded by the US. As a result, Albania isolated it's self from the world, and many Maoist parties split as a "Hoxhaist" party.
Mao and Khrushchev meeting before the split
Chinese Propaganda poster celebrating the friendship between Hoxha's Albania and Mao's China
"They cannot understand as of yet that we are not fighting a political party but a sect of murderers who are destroying all contemporary spiritual culture."-Baron Ungern von Sternberg on the Bolsheviks
There are two kinds of dictatorship. There is the dictatorship of the minority, the dictatorship of a small group...which is directed against the people. Marxists are the enemies of such a dictatorship, and they fight such a dictatorship far more stubbornly and self-sacrificingly than do our noisy Anarchists. There is another kind of dictatorship, the dictatorship of the proletarian majority,the dictatorship of the masses, which is directed against the bourgeoisie, against the minority. At the head of this dictatorship stand the masses; here there is no room either for a camarilla or for secret decisions, here everything is done openly, in the streets, at meetings -- because it is the dictatorship of the street, of the masses, a dictatorship directed against all oppressors."Joseph Stalin
But there were communists against Lenin. Who developed several ideologies
"When the people are being beaten with a stick, they are not much happier if it is called "the People's Stick"."-Mikhail Bakunin
Syndicalism: One of the first left libertarian ideologies based on workers self-managing the economy and joining together in "one big union" and striking.
Platformism: Made my Nestor Makhno, this anarchist ideology is based on "ideological unity, tactical unity, collective responsibility, and federalism.". The ideology also was one of the first to refute Trotsky's ideas on the peasantry, due to being comprised mostly of Ukrainian peasants.
Left communism: Left communism is a mid-way point between anarchism and Leninism, proposing that a state is needed to transition society into communism, but that the state does not have to be authoritarian.
Communalism: Based on federations of cities and towns into a interdependent economic and political federation, with independent laws and direct democracy, and harmony with nature. Denounced most modern anarchism as being a "apolitical lifestyle" separated from it's original goals
Zapatismo: while not in-name an anarcho-communist ideology, Mayan rebels in Mexico have created this ideology out of Mayan traditional beliefs, and is generally classified as a communist ideology. It advocates indigenous rights, social justice, worker's self-management, and no foreign business on communal soil
Situationism: During the May 1968 riots in France, a group known as the Situationist Internationale gained great influence. They bulit their theories on the concept of the Spectacle, a superficial "reality" that was developed by the use of mass media, advertisement, and propaganda to create a reality so influenced by propaganda that reality is rarely seen. They advocated worker's councils rather then labor unions most socialist advocated, which they saw as bureaucratic.
Leaders of the authoritarian Left
Maximilien de Robespierre-One of the most important figures of the French Revolution, he started the concept that violence must be used to ensure a true revolutionary republic
Mao Zedong-Chairman of the Communist Party of China, The namestake of Maoism, his ideas influenced the Revolutions in Cuba and Nicaragua, modernized China, and led the rise of various Maoist rebel organization in the Third World
Muammar Gaddafi-"Botherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution" of The Libyian Jamahiriya, a influential Islamic Socialist that wanted to unite Africa in one union. Libya under Gaddafi had the highest standard of living in Africa, giving it the nickname "Africa's Switzerland"
Huey P. Newton-Founder of the American Maoist Black Panther Party, an organization in the civil rights era that thought that only violent communist revolution can truly liberate African Americans
Leaders of the libertarian left
Nestor Makhno-miltary leader in the Russian civil war that fought both Bolsheviks, the monarchy and nationalists, established the Free territory, an anarchist-controlled communal federation in Southeast Ukraine.
Buenaventura Durruti-Spanish anarchist who led the CNT forces in Catalonia during the Spanish civil war and established revolutionary communes in Catalonia, which today are regarded as a example of "full communism" without a state.
Subcomandante Marcos-Frigurehead of the Mayan rebel group the EZLN, regarded as a face of modern revolution and rebellion
Rosa Luxemburg-Early critic of Lenin and founder of Left communism, fought in a German Revolution after World War 1 that was put down by government forces
Cooperation and war between ideologies
Propaganda of the libertarian right