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Transcript of Newman Theory
Keshia Woods Trina Owens
Regina Perrow Neuman's theory Neuman's System Model Betty Neuman's history Neuman's history continued She began developing her model while lecturing in community health nursing at UCLA
The model was a response to her graduates’ request for a course that
covered various client problems rather than a few problems in depth
The model is based on philosophical views, Gestalt theory, Hans Selye's stress theory , and general system theory
The model was first published in 1972 in Nursing Research as a “Mode for Teaching Total Person Approach to Patient Problems”
Neuman published refined version in 1974 and 1980, and the Neuman System Model in 1989 , Neuman began using the term client rather than patient Newman's model focuses on stress and stress reduction and is primarily concerned with the effects of stress on health
According to Neuman, her model affords a total approach to client problems by providing a multi-dimensional view of the person as an individual
Her comprehensive and dynamic model addresses the constant interaction between a client and the environment Betty Neuman is a community health nurse and clinical psychologist
She developed a model based on the individual’s relationship to stress, the reaction to it, and reconstitution factors that are dynamic in nature Major points of theory Content -the variables of the person in interaction with the internal and external environment comprise the whole client system.
Basic structure/Central core- The common client survival factors in unique individual characteristics representing basic system energy resources. The basis structure, or central core, is made up of the basic survival factors which include: normal temp. range, genetic structure.- response pattern. organ strength or weakness, ego structure. Stability, or homeostasis, occurs when the amount of energy that is available exceeds that being used by the system. A homeostatic body system is constantly in a dynamic process of input, output, feedback, and compensation, which leads to a state of balance.
Degree to reaction- the amount of system instability resulting from stressor invasion of the normal LOD.
Entropy- a process of energy depletion and disorganization moving the system toward illness or possible death.
Flexible LOD- a protective, accordion like mechanism that surrounds and protects the normal LOD from invasion by stressors. Major points of theory continued Lines of Resistance: internal factors that defined against stressors (increased heart rate, dilated vessels, increased breathing)
Normal LOD- It represents what the client has become over time, or the usual state of wellness. It is considered dynamic because it can expand or contract over time. (skin= consistent and stable, but can change over time)
Flexible line of defense- moves toward and away normal line of defense; dynamic, rapidly altered in short amount of time (sleep depervation, dehydration, and malnutrition) Major points of theory continued Major points of theory continued
Primary Prevention- occurs before the system reacts to a stressor.
=strengthens the person (primary the flexible LOD) to enable him to better deal with ------=stressors includes health promotion and maintenance of wellness.
=occurs after the system reacts to a stressor and is provided in terms of existing system.
=focuses on preventing damage to the central core by strengthening the internal lines of resistance and/or removing the stressor.
=occurs after the system has been treated through secondary prevention strategies.
=offers support to the client and attempts to add energy to the system or reduce energy needed in order to facilitate reconstitution. Prevention- the primary nursing intervention. = focuses on keeping stressors and the stress response from having a detrimental effect on the body Major Points of Theory/ Metaparadigm PERSON
Human being is a total person as a client system and the person is a layered multidimensional being.
Each layer consists of five person variable or subsystems:
-Physiological - Refers of the physicochemical structure and function of the body.
-Psychological - Refers to mental processes and emotions.
-Socio-cultural - Refers to relationships and social/cultural expectations and activities.
-Spiritual - Refers to the influence of spiritual beliefs.
-Developmental - Refers to those processes related to development over the lifespan ENVIRONMENT
"the totality of the internal and external forces (intrapersonal, interpersonal and extra-personal stressors) which surround a person and with which they interact at any given time."
The internal environment exists within the client system.
The external environment exists outside the client system.
The created environment is an environment that is created and developed unconsciously by the client and is symbolic of system wholeness. Major points of theory/ Metapardigm HEALTH
-Health is equated with wellness.
-“the condition in which all parts and subparts (variables) are in harmony with the whole of the client (Neuman, 1995)”.
-The client system moves toward illness and death when more energy is needed than is available. The client system moved toward wellness when more energy is available than is needed Major Points of theory/ Metapardigm NURSING
-a unique profession that is concerned with all of the variables which influence the response a person might have to a stressor.
-person is seen as a whole, and it is the task of nursing to address the whole person.
-Neuman defines nursing as “action which assist individuals, families and groups to maintain a maximum level of wellness, and the primary aim is stability of the patient/client system, through nursing interventions to reduce stressors.’’
-The role of the nurse is seen in terms of degree of reaction to stressors, and the use of primary, secondary and tertiary interventions. How theory translates to practice Betty Neuman’s system model provides a comprehensive flexible holistic and system based perspective for nursing. Neuman's model focuses on the response of the client system to actual or potential environmental stressors and the use of primary, secondary and tertiary nursing prevention intervention for retention, attainment, and maintenance of optimal client system wellness. Stressors: factors that affect an individual
Intrapersonal: internal factors (infections and emotions)
Interpersonal: unrealistic expectations (home, work, school)
Extrapersonal: outside factors (financial concerns) Major points of theory/ Metaparadigm Bibliography Kozier, Barbara, and Audrey Berman. "Nursing Concept and Theory." Kozier & Erb's fundamentals of nursing: concepts, process, and practice. 9th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. 45-46.
Nursing Theories ." Current Nursing. N.p., 28 Mar. 2012. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <currentnursing.com/nursing.com/nursing-theory/Neuman.html>.