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Civil War Time line

8 important battles/events in 1860-1865
by

Urooj Farooqi

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Civil War Time line

From 1860-1865, the United States of America
split into two and went to war known as Battle of Fort Sumter
April 12-14 1861 The Civil War. Battle Of Fort Sumter
April 12-14, 1861 For the safety of his men, United States Major Robert Anderson moved his command from Fort Moultrie near the mouth of Charleston Harbor, to Fort Sumter, South Carolina. When his force of 85 soldiers moved there, President Lincoln gave strict orders to his Union force to never fire the first shot. When Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard demanded Major Anderson to surrender, Major Anderson refused and the Confederates opened fired on Fort Sumter at 4:30 April 12, 1861 and began the Civil War. After a day of bombing and firing, at around 2:30 , on April 13, Major Anderson surrendered the fort and took the force back to the North on April 14, 1861. A.M. P.M. Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861 Before the battle of Bull Run, both the Confederacy and the Union thought the civil war would be a quick broil and would be resolved quickly. So quick that politicians and society folk had gone out to Bull Run, Virginia and picnicked there. President Lincoln's plan was to meet up with General P.G.T. Beauregard's force in Manassas, Virginia and take them down quickly to get to Richmond and end the war. General of Union army in northeast Virginia, Irvin McDowell planned to hit the left flank of General P.G.T. Beauregard force with majority of their army. General P.G.T. Beauregard planned on doing the same to the Union army. But because of General McDowell's complicated plan to attack the Confederacy and poor leadership skills, General P.G.T Beauregard quickly learned the strategies the Union army was planning and retaliated and broke Union's right flank. After the union scattered back to Washington after a confusing and bloody battle, the Confederacy and Union quickly learned that the Civil War would be much more strenuous then believed. Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861 Battle of Antietam
September 17, 1862 Determined to win a battle in the North and have recognition as a separate country, Confederate General Robert E. Lee took command of his force to fight the Union. General Lee took his force and crossed the Potomac River in Maryland to invade Washington D.C., but found it blocked by Union troops lead by General George B. McClenllan in Sharpsburg near Antietam Creek. Here, the battle of Antietam was known to be the bloodies single day battle in American history. In the south, Union General Ambrose E. Burnside tried to cross the Antietam Creek with his forces shortly after noon as part of the diversionary attack, but was beaten back. Shortly after crossing the creek, he met up with Confederate General A.P. Hill's force, who stopped the last Union force to attack the Confederacy that day. On September 18, 1862, General McClenllan refused to fight again with General Lee, who had began his withdraw on the night of the 18th. Confederacy beat the Union troop, but failed to invade Maryland and failed to any foreign recognition. Battle of Antietam
September 17, 1862 Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 After the battle of Antietam and the failed attempt for recognition for the Confederate as a separate country, President Lincoln issues a proclamation freeing all the slaves in the south. Lincoln used the emancipation proclamation as an instrument of war and was one of the boldest political act of the war. He saw the Confederacy as rebellions and felt he still had leadership over them. Lincoln was taking the south's resources away from them; weakening their production. Lincoln, however, only freed the slaves in the south and not the boarder states because he wanted to keep them on the Union side. Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 Battle Of Vicksburg
April-July 1863 With the successful invasion of New Orleans in September 1862, the battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi, demonstrated the Union's initial plan in taking down the Confederacy - the Anaconda Plan. With the desire of invading the Mississippi River from the Confederacy, Union General Ulysses S. Grant took his troops to converge on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under General John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. With the loss of Pemberton’s army and hold of the Mississippi River, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. The eastern half of the Confederacy-already suffering the effects of the naval blockade-were denied much needed supplies from the western territories. Battle of Vicksburg
April-July 4, 1863 Battle of Gettysburg
July 1-4, 1863 Again, Confederate General Robert E. Lee invaded the North to defeat the Union on its own soil to gain recognition of the Confederacy's independence. After accidentally meeting with Union General George G. Meade’s forces on July 1st in Gettysburg, the battle began and ranged on for four days until July 4th. On July 2nd, General Meade was able to a strong defensive line on Cemetery Ridge outside of town. On July 3rd, General Lee takes a risk sending 10,000 of his men led by General George Pickett to charge the Union head on. They reached the Union line, but were sent back with heavy casualties and on July 4th, General Lee retreated back to Virginia. Battle of Gettysburg
July 1-4 1863 Battle of Appomattox Court House
April 9, 1865 The Fall Of Richmond
1864-1865 The Fall of Richmond
1864-1865 Battle of Appomattox Court House
April 9, 1865 The fall of Richmond, Virginia was not a quick and easy task for General Ulysses S. Grant's army of Potomac. In the spring of 1864, General Grant's army battled in Virginia at The Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, and Cold Harbor. Confederate army lead by General Robert E. Lee stopped General Grant's army from moving close to Richmond. But neither army was able to defeat the other. Soon, General Grant decided to move to Petersburg to capture the important railroad that brought General Lee's army and the Confederate capital vital supplies by train. As General Grant did this, he sent General Philip Sheridan to destroy important and rich farmlands in Shenandoah Valley. General Grant thought the destruction of land would send a message to the Confederate armies to surrender. General Grant's attempt to capture the railroad failed when General Lee's army stopped them. Both armies dug trenches to protect their soldiers. This held on for nine long months. In April 1865, General Lee could no longer hold Petersburg because he had lost to many men. Lee was forced to leave Peterburg and Union troops entered Richmond on April 3, 1865. The battle of Appomattox Court House was one of the last battles of the Civil War. On April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. After the fall of Richmond on April 3, 1865, General Lee retreated out west to Appomattox, Virginia. For several days, General Grant had written to General Lee suggesting Lee's surrender. General Lee refused the surrender, but agreed on meeting with General Grant between picket lines to discuss a peaceful outcome. General Lee wanted to fend off Union General Philip Sheridan's cavalry while another section of General Lee's army moved to Lynchburg. Union General George G. Meade's crops were stationed on the north side of Appomattox River close to General Lee's army while General Sheridan's cavalry had taken a southern rout to outrun Lee and surround him on the west and south side. Confederate General John B. Gordon's crops had attacked the Union, but the Union infantry moved quickly on him and Gordon needed help from General James Longstreet. Because General Lee was becoming surrounded, Lee agreed to surrender. For the surrender meet, the Union and Confederate armies met at Wilmer McLean's house.
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