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Transcript of Lev Vygotsky
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky believed there was a difference between what a child could achieve independently (called actual development), and what the child could achieve with the guidance of an adult (called the level of potential development).
The middle between these two developmental levels is called ZPD, and learners must be guided through multiple steps, or scaffolding. Vygotsky realized that what a person could be taught mattered more than what the person actually knew.
Vygotsky was also the first to advocate for inner speech, or self-talk that helps regulate our thought processes. He believed that, through inner speech, a child regulated its activity and these children were shown to be more competent socially than those who did not indulge in it.
1. Piaget and Vygotsky had differing ideas of child development:
Piaget believed children went through cognitive developmental stages, or created schema.
Sensorimotor stage (infant) --> Formal operational stage (adult)
Piaget also believed learning took place after development. Children achieved a state of "equilibrium" or constructed enough schema to reach a new developmental stage.
2. The Communist Party in Russia also suppressed Vygotsky's work, therefore its prevalence was not widely known until the 1960s.
1. Zone of Proximal Development in the classroom:
Consideration of the ZPD reminds teachers of how children can be stretched to reach higher level learning goals with adult guidance and support.
A child's ZPD is constantly changing as he or she masters increasingly challenging tasks with time.
Example: Teaching new math material in chunks: I do (teacher-led), We do (students work together), You do (independent work).
Higher mental process that teachers and students use in order to change the ways they think and learn. This helps us become more reflective, autonomous, proactive, and positive learners.
Real-life example: When solving a math problem, students walk themselves through each step in the process, using their inner speech to monitor and problem-solve along the way.
3. Sociocultural Theory:
Became well-known in the late 1950s - early 1960s. Diverse perspectives have increasingly developed over the more recent 25 years. Varies culture to culture.
Real-life example: Children interacting with their parents, teachers, or more knowledgeable peers; using culture and setting to shape the interaction.
Born November 17, 1896
Died June 11, 1934
Contracted tuberculosis at age 24 and died when he was 37.
Born in Orsha, Russian Empire. This is present day Belarus.
Born the same year (1896) as Jean Piaget.
Graduated with a degree in law in 1917 from Moscow State University.
It was here that he studied a range of subjects including psychology, sociology, linguistics and philosophy.
Formally began studying psychology in 1924 when he gained a fellowship for research at the Psychological Institute in Moscow.
Set up research labs in major cities of the Soviet Union.
Founded present day ESE.
Published six books on psychology topics over a ten year period.
Focused on topics relating to child development and education.
His work was suppressed by the Communist Party in Russia. He also had a short life, which contributes to his failure of prominence.
Vygotsky's work became accessible to the Western world in the 1960s.
"Learning is more than the acquisition of the ability to think; it is the acquisition of many specialised abilities for thinking about a variety of things." - Lev Vygotsky
We do not learn because we've developed, rather we develop because we've learned.
We learn through social interaction with our environment.
Vygostsky suggested that human development results from a dynamic interaction between individuals and society.
Through this interaction, children learn gradually and continuously from parent and teachers.
This learning varies from one culture to the next.
More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
MKO refers to someone who has a greater understanding or a higher skill level than the learner.
This may be an adult, teacher or a child’s peer.
Today, MKO can be taken to be a machine or computer-based tutorial.
The concept of More Knowledgeable Other is integrated with the Zone of Proximal Development.
Scaffolding: I Do (Teacher)
We Do (Students together)
You Do (Independent)
Vygotsky's theories have influenced the Western part of the world since the 1960s.
Our curriculum has been impacted through the use of scaffolding in our classrooms to help students become more successful learners.
Teachers, parents, and peers are seen as More Knowledge Others and can be used as resources to gain knowledge and scaffold their learning as well.
Self-talk has given way to metacognition and has been adapted to decoding and comprehension strategies in reading.