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Mcarthyism

An in depth analysis of the causes and effects of Mcarthyism
by

Arjav Shah

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of Mcarthyism

Kaushik, AJ & AJ McCarthyism Those unwilling to cooperate could do so using the Fifth Amendment (protects against abuse of government authority)
Subject to indirect penalties
Ridicule by HUAC members
Contempt of Congress charge
Loss of employment
Blacklisted from future jobs
Represented a paragon of injustice
Since hearings were civil, rather than
criminal proceedings witnesses did not
enjoy the protections of the criminal
justice system
Practiced guilt by association
Type of ad hominem fallacy
Attacks the person because of the similarities with the values of communism
McCarthyism had penetrated the government Supposed subversive messages placed into Hollywood films
List of screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, who were denied employment because of their political beliefs (communism), real or suspected
First systematic blacklist – November 25, 1947
Ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of congress after refusing to testify in HUAC
“Hollywood Ten”
By 1950, pamphlet titled “Red Channels” named 151 industry professionals, calling them “Red Fascists and their Sympathizers”
McCarthyism had penetrated the media The Hollywood Blacklist (mid 20th century) U.S Politician
Born (1908)-Died(1957)
Senator for Wisconsin
Known for investigating dozens of U.S. government officials for communists. Who was McCarthy? How did it play a role in the Cold War?
How did it shape the future? Significance of McCarthyism The Red Scare Hysteria over the perceived threat posed by communists
Had a profound and severe impact on American government and society Went to the extent of interrogating federal employees to determine whether they were sufficiently loyal to the government Fundamental Institution

Investigated communist activity

Dramatic public hearings

Ritualistic approach to interrogations

Individuals subpoenaed to testify

"Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?"

Cleansing HUAC - House Committee on
Un-American Activities(1938) HUAC - House Committee on
Un-American Activities(1938) McCarthy's speech during the Lincolns Birthday luncheon

Announced 205 names

The figure was later reduced to 57

McCarthy decided to investigate all those he accused. Origin Named after Joseph McCarthy

Era of when McCarthy was leading investigations

Known as the witch hunt to find U.S. government official that were associated with the soviets.

Also Known as the Second Red Scare McCarthyism McCarran Act In 1949, China falls to the Communists

China White Paper

Communists would have won regardless of USA

Communists in China unrelated to Soviets

Dean Acheson
Secretary of State, under pressure from McCarthyism

Forced to make a speech renouncing the China White Paper

Had to say that China is basically a Soviet puppet

Did not recognize China Relations with China America lost the Chinese Markets of the Open Door Policy

Hostilities increased between China and USA

Resentment continues to this day

China would side with the Soviets, impacting the Cold War Negative Effects Furthering the Cold War Exacerbating hostilities between USSR and USA

Increasing Two Camps mentality Thank You For Listening! Alger Hiss (1904-1996)
Accused of being a Soviet spy and convicted of perjury in 1950
Senior Editor at Time tipped HUAC off
Whittaker Chambers testified against him as well
Hiss claimed no knowledge of Chambers
Evidence was found that said otherwise

Denied the charges and sued for libel

Not proven that he was a Soviet spy
Convicted for perjury (for saying he wasn't a spy Otherwise known as the anti-communist law or The Internal Security Act of 1950
Highly controversial law
Pat McCarran led the original legislation
One of the most important laws in American History
Stated that a totalitarian dictatorship would not tolerated in the United States
Actions would be taken against communists who were a threat to the United States. American lawyer involved with the establishment of the United Nations
Actually attended the Yalta conference
Accused of being a Soviet spy and convicted of perjury in 1950
Senior Editor at Time magazine tipped HUAC off saying that he had passed several State Department documents to the Soviets Things to Take Away From This Presentation 1. Who was McCarthy? When was he born? What is he known for today?
2. When did McCarthy first talk about the presence of communists in America? How many were accused?
3. What was the Red Scare?
4. What was HUAC? What role did they play in the rise of communist fear?
5. What were witnesses asked to do? What happened if an accused member did not cooperate with the HUAC?
6. What were the Rosenberg Trials? What can we tell about legal procedures at the time?
7. Who was Alger Hiss? Why and how was he accused of being a communist spy?
8. What was the McCarran Act? Why is it one of the most important laws in American history?
9. What was the significance of McCarthyism? Which countries were influenced by communism during this time?
10. What were the negative effects of McCarthyism? How did it aggravate the Cold War? Trial Impact McCarthy's Rise to Power

Said there are further State Department Spies

Enraged the media Sources
Paddock, Richard C. (May 11, 2008), "Loyalty oath poses ethical dilemmas", San Francisco Chronicle

http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/31170/gaddis-smith/harry-trumans-china-policy-mccarthyism-and-the-diplomacy-of-hyst

http://future.state.gov/when/timeline/1946_cold_war/mccartyism_and_the_department_of_state.html

http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/mccarthy/blacklist.html

https://files.nyu.edu/th15/public/who.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venona/dece_hiss.html




http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/McCarran-Ferguson+Act+of+1945

http://www.coldwar.org/articles/50s/TheRosenbergTrial.asp

http://www.coldwar.org/articles/50s/SenatorJosephMcCarthy.asp More Sources http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/rosenb.htm

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-rosenberg-trial-begins

http://ncrrc.org/rosenbergs/the-trial/

http://law.jrank.org/pages/9705/Red-Scare.html

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/blacklist.html

Joseph Smith. The Cold War. 1998. Print

Kelly Rogers, Joe Thomas. History 20th Century World Cold War. 2008. Print Rosenburg Trials 1949, Soviets succeed in testing atomic bomb

Julius and Ethel Rosenburg accused of selling secrets

Both were fired from jobs for being communists

Relied on circumstantial evidence

Death sentence for Rosenbergs, 15 years for witnesses
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