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Autism

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by

Susie Grant

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Autism

Autism...
Inclusion in the classroom
Autism Anglia (2013)
define Autism as a "complex developmental disability which affects the way a person makes sense of the world around them"

What is Autism?
However,
Seach (1998)
defines Autism as "a disability affecting the development of communication and social interaction. It is also characterised by rigid behaviours which individuals display because of a lack of flexibility in their
thought processes
" (pg.4.)

Autism is such a new concept that there is still confusion referring to the definition due to the continual research surrounding this disorder. People with Aspergers Syndrome often desire social contact, but do not know how to go about it, whereas those with autism often prefer their own company.
SOME PEOPLE SEE A LINK?
Warning!

A short history lesson...
Leo Kanner (1943)
identified similar characteristics in 11 children and was the first person to publish a paper defining Autism.

Hans Asperger (1944)
found similar findings in a group of older children.
In
1979 Lorna Wing and Judy Gould
identified the
"Triad of Impairments"
The Triad of Impairments
Bibliography
Autism Anglia (2013) Available at: www.autism-anglia.org.uk Accessed on:30th September 2013

Autism Education Trust (2013) A guide for teachers. Available at: http://www.autismeducationtrust.org.uk/resources/teachers%20guide.aspx. Accessed on: 30th September 2013.

Autism Europe (1996) Charter for persons with Autism. Available at: http://www.autismeurope.org/files/files/charter-for-persons-with-autism.pdf?phpMyAdmin=6b5bf7f8d78e834db66115fb8a480868 [Accessed on: 1st October 2013]

Autistica (2012) What is Autism? Available at:http://www.autistica.org.uk/about_autism/index.php?gclid=CNnDxaSS-7kCFSTJtAodTjMA3g [Accessed on: 1st October 2013]

Belmonte, M, Anderson,G,Greennough,W,Courchesne, E, Powell,S, Perry,E, DeLorey,T, Tierney,E, Jiang,Y, Levitt,P, Boulanger,L, Beckel-Mitchener,A, Rubenstein,J & Cook.Jr,E (2004)Autism as a Disorder of Neural Information Processing:
Directions for Research and Targets for Therapy. Avavilable at: http://www.autismspeaks.org/docs/sciencedocs/d_200709_pinpointing_autism_unabridged.pdf [Accessed on: 30th September]

National Autistic Society (2002) Do children with autism spectrum disorders have a special relationship with Thomas the Tank Engine and, if so, why? [PDF] Available at: http://www.autism.org.uk/About-autism/Our-publications/Reports/Our-policy-and-research-reports/Children-with-autism-and-thomas-the-tank-engine.aspx [Accessed on: 30th September 2013]

Seach,D (1998) Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Positive approaches for teaching children with ASD.Staffs; NASEN
www.additionalneeds.net
aspergersawareness.wordpress.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Kanner
www.playbyplayworld.com
This consists of:
Social Interaction
Social Communication
Social Imagination
Social Interaction
This means they may find it difficult to understand
unwritten social rules
, empathy , and expressing their own emotions (AET, 2013)

Individuals may be very withdrawn and make little attempt at social contact except to have
their needs met
Social Communication


Sensory impairment
(deafness, blindness or both)
Culture
(speaking a different language; EAL)
Religion
(parents may not allow the teaching of certain religions)
Health issues
(eczema)
Background noise
(radio, TV... need to consider Hyper/Hypo-sensitivity)
Emotions
(lack of sympathy or empathy)
Stress
(confusion; not knowing what is going on)
Strong accents
(lack of understanding of a certain accent from another Region)
Specialist communication techniques
(sign language, Makaton)
Prejudice
(allowing beliefs to pre-judge a situation, faculty or parent views?)

RECOGNISING BARRIERS TO
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION:
There are many
ways to communicate:

V
isual – Seeing
A
uditory – Listening
K
inaesthetic - Feeling
O
lfactory – Smelling
G
ustatory – Tasting


Vocabulary
, words and
different languages (
EAL
?)
• Tone of
voice

Pitch
(high or low)
When being verbal
you must be wary of:
Children also
pick up on non-verbal communication
as easily as verbal:

Eye contact

Signs, symbols or pictures

Writing

Using objects

Physical gestures

Body language and emotions

Lip reading
Some
people with Autism have
difficulties
with both verbal and non-verbal language.
Many individuals have a very
literal
understanding of language and think people always mean EXACTLY what they say.
They can find it
difficult to use or understand
one or more of the following:

Facial expressions or tone of voice

Jokes and sarcasm

Common phrases and sayings
Some people with Autism may not speak or have
fairly limited speech
. They will USUALLY (not always) understand what other people say to them, but prefer to use
alternative means of communications
themselves such as sign language or visual symbols.
Others will have good language skills but they may still find it hard to understand the
“give and take”
nature of conversations perhaps repeating what the other person has just said (this is known as
echolalia
) or talking about their own interests.

• Maintain
eye contact
when speaking to
people
• Open and receptive
body language

Reduce distractions
as far as possible
• Utilise other forms of communication (
VAK
)
• Use
interpreter or sign language
.
• Open and closed
question
s (depends on
situation)

Listening

Appropriate silences

Translators

Interpreters
(sign language and
lip speakers)

Speech and language specialists

Advocacy
services

Teach boards
; symbols for activities,
set routines, visual aid
*
Advocates
are people who support individuals and help them to explain and say what they want and need to
maintain their wellbeing
. They are employed to
represent/speak for
a young person or adult as they cannot do this themselves. They help to ensure the individual’s views are
heard
so their needs can be met and their problems sorted out. The can act as an intermediary when there is a difference of opinion. Advocates are normally appointed when mainly adults, but sometimes children are
unable to communicate
their needs themselves.
GIVE CHILDREN WITH AUTISM TIME TO PROCESS INFORMATION!! DO NOT PUSH THEM!
It is common that young people (children and adults) can have
issues with the processing of information
. They sometimes find difficulties and differences in receiving information through the senses. “Anatomically, abnormalities associated with autism have been localised in cerebellum, brain stem, frontal lobes, hippocampus and amygdala. While
significant abnormalities are present in all these cognitive capacities and anatomical regions
, it remains to be seen how these characteristics are related to each other and to autism’s fundamental causes.” (Belmonte, M. 2004)
http://img1.etsystatic.com/000/0/5778266/il_fullxfull.178069873. jpg
Social Imagination
Diagnosis
Route One
Route Two
Route Three
The pathways to getting an assessment for autism vary greatly between cases.
• Keep a file with
evidence supporting
why you think the person may have an Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC)

• Record information on anything different you noticed during the
pregnancy and childhood
(if known) to the present day, including information from school, friends,
college, family, work colleagues.

• Include
any incidents
that have happened which make you think ASC may be the diagnosis

• Please be warned they can be
very expensive
, ranging from around £600 to over £1000 for both children and adults

Think A Child Has Autism?
Accessing the National Curriculum
Seach (1998)
Supportive Teaching Strategies
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=POIJG3qmV9Q
United Nations Charter Of Rights (1996)
Legislation
http://www.autismeurope.org/files/files/charter-for-persons-with-autism.pdf?phpMyAdmin=6b5bf7f8d78e834db66115fb8a480868
http ://youtu.be/5GWPjLk2OtQ
The Autism Act
The Autism Act (2009) "committed the Government to publishing an adult autism strategy to transform services for adults with adults."

The strategy focused on five key areas:
Increasing awareness and understanding of autism
Developing a clear and consistent pathway for diagnosis
Improving access to the services and support people need to live independently
Employment
Enabling local partners to develop relevant services to meet identified needs and priorities

www.autism-anglia.org.uk
These
difficulties
cover both verbal and non-verbal language
They may have a very
literal
understanding of language and can be
slow to process
language
Some children may not speak or have
limited speech
whilst others display good language skills
Autism Education Trust (2013)
This can make it hard for a child with ASD to
understand and predict
another persons behavior and imagine situations of their own nature
The child may struggle to plan ahead and organise themselves and to
cope with new and unfamiliar situations
- for example a supply teacher

AET (2013)
Children with Autism
struggle
to communicate and can sometimes repeat what is said to them- showing a
low level of comprehension
They struggle to see things from another viewpoint
They don't always have experiences of situations as they are
unable to retain the information
Vulnerable to bullying/exploitation due to being
exceptionally honest
and misinterpreting signs and signals

AA (2013)
http ://youtu.be/5GWPjLk2OtQ
Intriguing Links
http://www.autismspeaks.org/family-services/heart-autism
http://www.makingprogresswithautism.blogspot.co.uk/
http://idoinautismland.blogspot.co.uk/
http://www.pathfindersforautism.org/articles/view/educational-recommendations-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
http://www.autistica.org.uk/about_autism/index.php?gclid=CNnDxaSS-7kCFSTJtAodTjMA3g
http://autismsparks.com/ (sign up for a free e-book)
ASPERGERS SYNDROME:
Aspergers Syndrome can be easily confused with high-functioning autism but differs in that people with Aspergers Syndrome
don’t
have an accompanying learning disability, and have a normal IQ. In fact, many people with Aspergers Syndrome quite often have a
higher than average IQ
, and are very intelligent. (A.A. 2013)

Legislation connected with working with
Young People with Autism include:
Caldicott Principles (1997)
:
1. Justify the purpose(s) of using confidential information
2. Understand the law and comply with it
3. Only use information when absolutely necessary
4. Use only the minimum information that is required
5. Everyone must understand his or her responsibilities
6. Access should be on a need-to-know basis
Human Rights Act (1998)
Data Protection Act (1998)
Freedom of Information (2000)
Health and Social Care Act (2008)
Equality Act (2010)
Thomas The Tank Engine & Autism Spectrum Disorder
http://www.myfavoritetoys.com/autism_thomas.html

http://www.myfavoritetoys.com/autism_faces.html

The links above explain how Thomas The Tank Engine is beneficial for children with Autism
"Thomas plays a vital role in the lives of some children with autism, acting as an initial point of entry into realms as vital as speech, emotion and imagination."
National Autistic Society (2012)
DOUCECROFT SCHOOL
Doucecroft School is an independent specialist school, offering
day and weekly boarding places
for children with autism. The school moved from Kelvedon to Eight Ash Green in September 2005 and was initially registered for a maximum of sixty-four children aged between
two and sixteen years
. However, because of the change in referrals two classrooms at Eight Ash Green have recently been converted to accommodate twelve students of
Further Education
age. Doucecroft School has been approved since
1984 by the DfEE
as being suitable for the
admission of pupils with Statements of Special Educational Needs
, under Section 11 of the 1981 Education Act.

Over the years
Doucecroft School and the Further Education Department
have moved, changed and grown into the purpose built campus providing specialist education- but at its heart it remains true to simply providing the very
best environment and education to children with autism.
Teach Boards
Other
sources
to consider:
Effective Communication
for Young People with Autism Can Be
Achieved
By Following These Rules:
Non-Verbal...
Misunderstanding...
Everything has an effect...
Sometimes...
Seach (1998) Pages 24-31
Seach (1998) Pages 24-31
Seach (1998)
Seach (1998)
Statistics
Research by the National Autistic Society has found that:

1 in 5
children with autism have been
excluded
from school

Only
15%
of adults with autism are in
full time paid employment

Each year, autism costs families and public services some
£28 billion
in the UK. Of this
£2.7 billion
is the cost of
supporting children with autism in their education

Autistica (2012)
Helpful Books
Seach,D (1998) Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Positive approaches for teaching children with ASD.Staffs; NASEN
By Suzy Smith and Susie Grant
Full transcript