Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Second Language Teaching Methods

Description of many second language teaching methods and approaches from Grammar translation through today. Also contains an overview of WIDA, SIOP, Ex-Cell, and Lingua-folio.
by

Annmarie Maher

on 28 February 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Second Language Teaching Methods

Communicative/Notional/Functional Approach
Communicative competence is central need
Functions - pragmatic/problem solving topics
Student centered; engaged in L2 production; small groups
Teacher is facilitator; responds to learners need; no direct correction
TRP heavy in early learning
Comprehensible pronunciation accepted
Unrehearsed situations, productive use of L2
Community Language Learning
Uses counseling techniques to reduce anxiety
Student viewed as client; active involvement
Student generated; no syllabus
Pronunciation and intonation
Model corrections
Teacher as counselor; guides reflection
Seated in circle; L1 to start with teacher translation
Teachers stand behind; decrease threat of teacher
Connects to Vygotsky - Zone of Proximal Development
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Direct Method
Developed from Reform Movement of 1880s; reaction to Grammar Translation Method
Oral language presented first, reading only for advanced learners
Use of pictures/actions to explain
No translation - L1 never used
Question/action patterns emphasized
Inductive approach to grammar/culture
Audio-Lingual Method
Grammar Translation Method
Used for centuries to teach Greek & Latin for higher education purposes
Native language use in instruction; little use of L2
Vocabulary taught separately in word lists
Detailed grammar explanations
Focus on reading of text for translation; begins early in study
Pronunciation not focus
Aspects still present today
Second Language Teaching Methods
Criticisms
Noah Chomsky - limitations of structural linguistics; weak connections between language acquisition and behaviorist psychology
Wilga Rivers (1964) - L1 grammatical instruction more effective; errors not always bad
Too teacher centered
Real language not so limited; variations too numerous
Listen first, speak second (when ready)
Use actions/commands/imperatives to teach vocabulary and enhance retention
Teacher - parent/director; student - child/actor
Kinesthetic sensory system - motor activity (right brain) before processing (left brain)
Seen today as a useful activity within a lesson, not a whole method
Criticisms of
Grammar Translation Method
No communicative aspects
Background theories absent
Not useful in real life situations
Not interesting for student
Limitations
Strict DM is counterproductive; teacher goes to great lengths to explain when translation would be easier
worked well for paying, motivated students
requires native speaking, highly proficient teachers
difficult to implement in schools
Beginning of a New Era:
The Methods Era
Fries
Lado
Moulton
Brooks
1945
Background in structural linguistics; based on principles of behavior psychology
Adapted the Direct Method, reaction to lack of speaking skills of Reading Approach
Army used for aural/oral training
Repetition/memorization; system of reinforcements
No L1; inductive grammar; grammar drills, vocabulary not actively taught
Immediate error correction, avoid bad habits
Positive reinforcement for correct answers
Teacher centered, uses modeling, "backward buildup"
Order - listening, speaking, reading, writing
(Use of Skinner - behaviorist)
1960s -
1980s
Widdowson
Wilkens Candlin Finocchariaro

Evolved into/
Basis for
Task Based
Instruction
Opposite of Audio-Lingual Method
Evolved to/Basis for Task Based Instruction
Charles A. Curran
1970s
Also opposes Audio-Lingual
Criticisms
Teacher needs to clearly understand L1 language and culture to create secure environment
Teachers not trained counselors
Lack of syllabus - objectives unclear
Fluency focus ~> accuracy problems
1977
Asher
Criticisms
Good as one activity, not full method
Good at beginning level, but difficult with higher level ideas
Teacher heavy instruction
Oral Approach/
Situational Language Teaching
1930s
Palmer;
Hornsby
Used Direct Method, but attempted to create scientifically based approach to SLA
Grammar control - oral practice, grammar and sentence pattern
Vocabulary control - 2,000 most common words
Theory guided syllabus, graduated content by difficulty
1900s
Gouin
Sauveur
Berlitz
Silent Way
Teacher emphasizes self-reliance; creates simple linguistic situations that remain under the complete control of the teacher; silent as much as possible
Teacher is engineer/technician
Students self/peer correct; develop 'inner criteria' for linguistic rules
Trial and error; errors show misunderstanding;
Vocabulary choice functional
Only learn to read after learned to speak
1970s
Caleb
Gattegno
Cuisenaire rods
Fidel Charts
5 Functional Categories
personal
interpersonal
directive
referential
imaginative
Natural Approach Based Heavily on Communicative
Suggestopedia
Lazanov
1970s
Utilizes positive suggestion and desuggestive learning (unlearning bad habits)
reduce negative influences on learning - atmosphere important
Phases
deciphering (presentation of content)
concert session (memorization through active and passive means)
elaboration (songs, dramas, games)
production (spontaneous use, no interuption from teacher)
Teacher is highly trained specialist
Criticisms
Teachers need to be highly trained in the methodology
Parent-child relationship of teacher-student
Music tastes could interfere
Not easily used in schools

SIOP
Ex-cell
Started in Europe for all subjects, NC adapted for ESL
Portfolio assessment/formative
"I can" statements
Samples and Evaluation
Multiple languages for abilities
Teacher as coach, not judge (Connection to Silent Way)
Document own progress
reduce
affective filter
WIDA
Language of Language Arts
Language of Math
Language of Science
Set of essential standards used by a large number of states to measure academic progress of ELLs
Measures proficiency across a number of disciplines
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Supports WIDA
Research validated
Originally observation tool
Critical and unique sheltered strategies
8 parts (see above)
30 features
'Can do' statements; connects to Linguafolio
CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency - necessary skills and knowledge for school success
Social and Instructional Language
6 levels from Entering (concrete/explicit) to Reaching (abstract/technical)
5 standards (interconnected, but content specific)
3 tiers - similar to Ex-cell
LinguaFolio
Language of Social Studies
5 Standards of WIDA
Related to Jim Cummins' -
BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills - the non-academic, everyday language that a person uses
8 Components of SIOP
Lesson Preparation
Include content area objectives as well as language objectives
Building Background
Explicit and direct links between past learning and new concepts
Comprehensible Input
Speak slowly, enunciate clearly, repeat more frequently, and adjust speech; Connected to use of TPR
Strategies
Meta-cognitive, cognitive,
and social/affective strategies
Interaction
Opportunities to use English in multiple settings across content areas
Practice and Application
Multiple opportunities to use hands-on materials or manipulatives to learn and practice the content
Review and Assessment
Support of the objectives during the lesson
Lesson Delivery
Review concepts, provide feedback through clarification, and make instructional decisions based on student response
Instructional strategies for reading, listening, and writing
Vocabulary Focus
3 Tiers
1 - Basic Words (like BICS)
2 - Information Processing Words - connectors, nesting, transitions
3 - Subject specific words (like CALP)
differentiated and targeted learning
values self-correction; (connection to Silent Way)
Both methods a reaction to Audio-Lingual Method
Communicative Approach reacted to lack of real language
Community Language Learning reacted to lack of freedom/repetition

Reactions to the ineffectivity of Grammar Translation Method used during many students' education pre-1950s; reduction of affective filter
Interpretation of more scientific/modern understanding of brain activity
TPR through kinesthetics
Silent Way through manipulation of colored rods
Suggestopedia through music and relaxation
Possible connections for
methods developed in the 1970s:
Annmarie Maher
Support
Support
Full transcript