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Chapter 6: Challenges to Spanish Authority

Reference: Philippine History by Teodoro A. Agoncillo

Albert Vincent Arandela

on 5 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 6: Challenges to Spanish Authority

•A treaty which states that the lands located at the east, belonged to the Portuguese,
and the lands located at the west shall belong to Spain.
•The Philippine Islands should belong to the Portuguese since it is located at the eastern hemisphere of the globe.

Treaty of Zarragosa

1566 & 1568 - Portuguese ships led by General Gonzalo Pereira, a Portuguese general, anchored in Cebu and asked the Spaniard general,
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, to leave but Legazpi refused and a battle started where Portuguese failed to make them leave.
1570- Pereira returned and again, failed to dislodge the Spaniards.

Portuguese Timeline

1579- The "Thirty Years' War in Europe" occurred.
1648- Spain signed the Treaty of Westphalia which declares the Dutch' independence.
1597- Holland sent an expedition led by Admiral Oliver van Noort. When the expedition reached Manila Bay, a Spanish squadron engaged the Dutch in a battle. And the Dutch were defeated.
1597-First attack of Dutch, they were defeated. 1610- Second attack of Dutch, they were also defeated.
1616- Dutch plundered vessels from Manila.
1617- The Audiencia sent a fleet against the Dutch and the battle was called Battle of Playa Honda.

Dutch Timeline

Portuguese and
Dutch Threats

Revolts in Luzon,
Visayas, and

When Legazpi died, Governor Guido de Lavezares, nulled the exemption of Lakan Dula and his relatives from the forced labor.
1574- Limahong, a Chinese adventurer, attacked Manila and Lakan Dula Revolted against the Spaniards and resulted to death of some Spanish Soldiers.

Revolt of Lakan Dula

Filipinos from Tondo formed a secret society whose purpose was to gain freedom from the Spanish government. This was called the First Katipunan.
Members of the group : Lakan Dula's son Magat Salamat; his nephew Agustin de Legazpi; Chief of Tondo, Juan Banal; Chief of Pandacan, Pedro Balingit; and many others.

Conspiracy in Tondo

1596- Magalat led some natives to revolt against Spaniards.
They defeated some Spanish soldiers but the governor general sent a Filipino assassin to murder Magalat

Revolt of Magalat

Ladia's Conspiracy 1643 - Pedro Ladia, a native from Borneo who came to Bulacan to lead a revolt against the Spaniards.
His plan reached the friar-curate and notified the Spanish authorities. Ladia was arrested, sent to Manila and then executed.

Conspiracy of Ladia

• Francisco Maniago (Pampanga,1660) , a chief from a village in Mexico who led the revolt  
• Causes of the revolt are the following:
•Independence in Central Luzon
•Abusive treatment of Spanish officials to the people
•Kapampangans took arms because of timber cutting
• They divided the group in two: one in Lubao with Maniago and the other is in Bacolor.
• The governor-general was worried and decided to asked help from Juan Macapagal, a chief in Arayat, who promised to help them quell the revolt. This weakened Maniago’s revolt.
•He sent an emissary to the Spaniards and demanded the following:
• The Governor-general will ask pardon to those who joined the revolt
• They will receive P200,000 as payment for the rice
•The Kapampangans will continue to cut timber, as required by the law on forced labor, but they would be given sufficient time to perform their duties at home.
•The Governor-general agreed and accepted Maniago’s demands and Maniago was satisfied and laid his arms down.

Revolt of Maniago

Andres Malong (Pangasinan, 1660), a native in Binalotangan who led the revolt
Forced labor caused the revolt in Pangasinan
Malong with other Filipinos took arms against the Spanish government and succeeded. Due to his success, he declared himself as the “King of Pangasinan”.
He urged other Filipinos in Ilocos Provinces, Zambales and Cagayan to take arms against the Spaniards. He sent thousands of his men causing him to weaken his army. Later, he was captured and was executed for being a “traitor”.

Revolt of Malong

Bancao (Leyte, 1662), a chieftain in Limasawa who led the revolt against the Spaniards.
Intolerance of the friars caused the revolt.
Agustin de Legazpi was one of the friends of Bancao who provides Bancao their food and other supplies needed. Bancao became a Catholic and a loyal subject to the King when suddenly he decided to return to the mountains and returned to the religion of his forefathers. He urged many natives to stop going to Catholic church and to come back to their forefather’s belief.
The friar-curates was worried and asked help to the Governor of Cebu to help them restore the Spanish influence in the place. This led Bancao to take arms against the Spaniards. The provincial governor of Cebu sent troops consisting of hundreds of men. Bancao was defeated and was killed fighting.

Revolt of Bancao

Agustin Sumuroy (Cavite, 1649) led the revolt.
Forced labor cause the revolt.
In 1649, the governor-general ordered the provincial governors to sent workers to the Cavite shipyard. Consequently, the governor recruited workers to be sent in Cavite. The workers resented leaving their families. The people of Palapag, Samar gathered under Agustin Sumuroy and revolted against the Spaniards to show their resentment.
The revolt spread in Mindanao, particularly in Zamboanga, Camiguin, Cebu, Masbate, Camarines and Albay. Due to the widespread of revolt, the governor-general in Manila sent troops to fight against Sumuroy but they were unsuccessful.
Sumuroy chose the mountains to be their natural fortress. In 1650, the Spaniards sent armies again to defeat Sumuroy. This time the result was good and somewhat a success for the Spanish government because they were able to defeat Sumuroy. Sumuroy was defeated, captured and was executed.

Revolt of Sumuroy

Here are the rebellious groups that existed due to the galleon trade expansion:
In 1702, group of people from Tondo; Binan, LAguna; and Silang, Cavite. Their action was due to loss of pasture lands and lands for agriculture.
In 1743, group of people from Pasig, Taguig, Bicutan, Parañaque, and some parts of Cavite and Bulacan. Their action was caused by their lack of access to rivers and forests.
In 1745 there were group of people who burned the haciendas in Bualacan's Buenavista, Pandi and Lolomboy. They also killed the friar-owners.
The principal couple, Diego and Gabriela Silang led a widespread revolt in Ilocos Sur on the issue of the right of the non-Spaniards or Indios to be involved in the galleon trade.
In 1807, the Basi Revolt in Ilocos Norte erupted due to the issue of government monopoly on the production, pricing and sale of basi. Basi is a favorite wine among the Ilocanos.

More Rebellions in Luzon

Rich in gold, forest products and trees for lumbers or log are some of the reasons why Spanish government is very coveted to penetrate mountainous parts in the country.
For instance, in Cordillera region, they were led by a maingel, a warrior-leader who is expert in headhunting. There were attempts of the Spaniards to send an expedition in 1591 and 1608 but due to the fierce resistance of taong bundok, which literally means “people of the mountains”, they failed.
The process did not only prove expensive and frustrating for the Spaniards, but also dangerous as confrontations were practically reduced to pangangayao or headhunting for the lumads, another term for those who remained non-Christian and non-Muslim long after colonization.

Resistance in the Interior and Mountainous Parts

1560 - 1820
The longest and bloodiest attempt by Spaniards.
First encounter by Martini de Goiti, dubbed them as “Moros”.
Spaniards cannot defeat the Moros, that they can only put up forts as defenses.
Because of Sultan Kudarat (1638-1671), the Spanish forces were forced to withdraw and focus mainly on Luzon.
After Kudarat’s death, two sultanates followed, lacking the leadership with that of Sultan Kudarat’s.
Then, the Muslim leaders entered a peace treaty in 1851 with Governador-General Urbiztondo.
At the end of the Spanish rule, the Moros in the South remained sovereign.

They were able to do this because of the following reasons:
1. The Spanish forces lacked military forces to break through the Moro kuta.
2. Mindanao is very far from Manila.
3. The Spaniards were more preoccupied in several fronts rather than besieging Mindanao.
4. Islam

The Moro Wars in the South

1. The Spaniards possessed superior weaponry and were able to employ native volunteers or mercenary soldiers.
2. The people remained divided and lacked unity, even though they had a centralized government and a geographic identity.
3. The giving of privileges and positions to the chieftains’ and their families weakened the unity of the people and prevented the birth of leaders that could consolidate many revolts.

Reasons for the General Failure of the Revolts

Chinese appeared the most constant and steady visitors among any foreigners, even before the Spanish forces came.
For Spaniards, the Chinese were “Sangleys”, which meant “the traders who come and went”.
Chinese products and services were in great demand among Filipinos and Spaniards alike, thus the Chinese community grew larger, forcing the Spanish authorities to situate them in a living space called parian.
Some authorities abused and oppressed Chinese people, provoking them to rebel.
Rebellions took place many times, but these revolts were easily quelled by the combined Spanish-Filipino force.
Several decrees were passed by the government about the expulsion of Chinese people from the Philippines but their presence became a necessity for everyone’s comfort and convenience, since almost every business and livelihood were controlled by the Chinese people at that time.

The Chinese Presence
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