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Child Development

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Sarah Mahmoud

on 4 June 2015

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Transcript of Child Development

Child Development
INFANCY (0-2 years)
Children communicate from birth and are constantly learning and developing new skills. It is important that children have physical contact for optimum development. Activities can help children's hearing, sight and physical and emotional development (State Government of Victoria, 2006).

This presentation will take you through three main stages of Child Development, which include: Infancy, Early Childhood and Middle Childhood. Each stage will explore physical development, cognitive development, social-emotional development and language development.

Reference List
Sarah Mahmoud, Jamaica Crombie & Caroline Britt
The credibility of the sources we have used in the information presented has been evaluated by its accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage (Metzger 2007, pp.2078-2091).
Early childhood is when children develop better control over their body in the environment, as they are now walking and improving their stability. Children will learn new movements like running, jumping, throwing, etc. As they progress they will be able to co-ordinate these movements for more complex actions (Saracho, N., 2014, p.107).

Physical development in young children will follow a progressive sequence, e.g. crawling, then walking, etc. However, the length of time it takes to develop these skills varies amongst individuals (Saracho, N., 2014, p.105).

Jean Piaget believed that children were always learning from and adapting to the world around them and that this cognitive development happened in distinct stages, with children aged 2-6 being in the ‘pre-operational
stage’ (Smidt, 2013, p.22).

During this stage, children are able to think more analytically about objects and the environment. However they still see the world subjectively, and may struggle to understand things from others point of view (Smidt, 2013, p.23)

During early childhood, children are beginning to strengthen key social skills like negotiating, which are supported by their developing ability to regulate their emotions (Barber, Richardson, Schultz and Wilcox, 2011, p.143).

Social/emotional wellbeing in young children is highly dependent on their relationships with their caregivers (parents, guardians, educators, etc.). Children who have trusting, respectful relationships with caregivers develop feelings of safety and security, which gives children a sense of self worth, and the confidence to explore their world and begin relationships with new people (Emmet, 2013, p.69).

By kindergarten age, children have mastered many words, but are still building their vocabulary and learning the specific rules of language like sentence structure (McGee and Richgels, 2014, p.26)

If children speak a different language at home to the one they learn at kindergarten or school, it is extremely important that development of both languages is supported, as people who are unable to learn or practice their native language can feel disconnected from part of their identity (Smidt, 2013, p.109).

INFANCY (0-2 years)
INFANCY (0-2 years)
INFANCY (0-2 years)
INFANCY (0-2 years)
American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015, 'Physical changes during puberty',
, viewed 13 May 2015, <https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/puberty/Pages/Physical-Development-of-School-Age-Children.aspx>.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA] 2014,
The Australian curriculum: English
, ACARA, Canberra, viewed 9 May 2015, <http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/english/curriculum/f-10?layout=1>.

Australian Institute of Family Studies 2015, Parenting in middle childhood and adolescence, AIFS, Canberra, viewed 17 May 2015, <https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/bibliography/parenting-middle-childhood-and-adolescence>.

Barber, C.R., Richardson, R. C., Schultz, B.L., Wilcox, D. (2011). A Preschool Pilot Study of Connecting with Others: Lessons for Teaching Social and Emotional Competence.
Early Childhood Education Journal
39:143–148. DOI 10.1007/s10643-011-0450-4

Child and Youth Health 2015, 'Child development 6-9 years',
Raising Children Network Australia
, viewed May 16 2015, <http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/child_development_%286-9%29_cyh.html>.

Emmett, S., Temple, E.(2013). Promoting the development of children's emotional and social wellbeing in early childhood settings: How can we enhance the capability of educators to fulfil role expectations? [online].
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood.
Vol. 38, No. 1, Mar 2013: 66-72. Retrieved from:<http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=266826704432300;res=IELAPA> ISSN: 1836-9391.

Faragher, J & McLean, J (1983), Children’s Stages of Development (birth to 2 1⁄2 years), Collingwood, TAFE Publications Unit.

Goldfarb, C, Ford-Jones, L, Levy, A & Tocek, K 2011, 'Physical development in school-age children',
About kids health
, The Hospital for Sick Children, London, viewed 14 May 2015, <http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/HealthAZ/DevelopmentalStages/SchoolAgeChildren/Pages/Physical-Development.aspx>.

McDevitt, TM & Ormrod, JE 2010,
Child development and education
, 4th edn, Pearson Education, Inc, New Jersey.

McGee, L.M., Richgels, D. J. (2014)
Designing Early Literacy Programs, Second Edition : Differentiated Instruction in Preschool and Kindergarten.
New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Metzger, M.J. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the Web: Models for evaluating vonline information and recommendations for future research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2078-2091

Raising Children Network (2006), Language development: an amazing journey, Raising Children Network (Australia) Limited.

Saracho, N., Spodek, B. (2014).
Handbook of Research on the Education of Young Children,
2nd Edition. New York, NY: Routledge.

Smidt, S. (2013).
The Developing Child in the 21st Century : A global perspective on child development
, 2nd edition. New York, NY. Routledge.
In the early months after birth, children will develop their emerging autonomy, inter-dependence, resilience and sense of agency. They will begin to squirm, move there hands and legs up and down and respond to gentle touching and cuddling.

Between 8 - 12 months children will develop physically to the point where they will be able to pull themselves up to a standing position when their hands are held and use furniture to support stepping movements. (Faragher and McLean, 1983).
Children are confident and involved learners. Children transfer what they have learned from one context to another.

Toddlers will develop a range of skills and processes such as problem solving, inquiry and experimentation. They will develop a sense of belonging to groups and will repeat actions that lead to interesting/ predictable results, e.g. banging a spoon on a saucepan. They will begin to recognize themselves in photos or the mirror and point to objects when named. (Faragher and McLean, 1983).

Between the age of 0-2 years, children become strong in their social and emotional wellbeing. They will interact verbally and non- verbally with others for a range of purposes, eg. children will smile often and show excitement when they see preparations being made for meals or for a bath.

They will become more settled in eating and sleeping patterns and may play alongside other toddlers, doing what they do but without seeming to interact (Faragher and McLean, 1983).

In the first 12 months, babies develop many of the foundations that underpin speech and language development. For the first three years or so, children will understand a lot more than they can say (Raising Children Network, 2006-2015).

In the later months, children will vocalize with intonation, beging to respond to their names and responds to human voices without visual cues by turning her head and eyes (Faragher and McLean, 1983).

The middle childhood years are a time of steady physical growth and development in agility, balance, coordination, endurance and improved hand-eye coordination and gross- and fine-motor skills development. Their high energy levels and their developing motor skills enables children to throw and hit a ball, ride a bike, swim, perform simple gymnastic manoeuvres and participate in organised sport (Goldfarb, Ford-Jones, Levy & Tocek 2011).

A number of pre-puberty changes occur during middle childhood including increased strength as muscle mass increases, shifts in the location and accumulation of body fat, and a lengthening of the limbs and an increase in height. This results in a slimmer appearance as the overall height and weight of the body comes into proportion (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015).

Middle childhood sees a gradual development in social skills and an increasing ability to relate to others. Peer groups form and genuine and sustained friendships are established. Social acceptance is essential to the development of self esteem, and feelings of self-consciousness and peer pressure begin to emerge (Child and Youth Heath 2015).

Emotional responses such as empathy, compassion and sympathy begin to develop as children are able to view situations from others perspectives (Australian Institute of Family Studies 2015). They are increasingly able to regulate their own emotions and guide their actions on the basis of other people's emotional expressions (McDevitt & Ormrod 2010,
p. 421).
During middle childhood, children's vocabularies expand as their semantic development takes effect. They understand that the words they choose and the tone in which they say them can influence others. They create relationships among words, understand synonyms and antonyms, and understand how prefixes and suffixes affect word meaning. Children also improve in the area of pragmatics and syntax, the parts of language used to create sentences and the rules which govern the use of language (ACARA 2014).

Learning how to read and write occurs conventionally in stages. At the beginning of middle childhood, children are moving into the transitional stage in which they spell out words and begin to write full sentences. By the age of 9, most children move on to the conventional stage, where they begin to use correct spelling and apply spelling rules in their writing (ACARA 2014).
According to developmental theorists, middle childhood is considered to be the Concrete Operational stage of cognitive development. This is the time where children grasp concepts such as multiple classifications, reversibility and conservation, and have an emerging capacity for more abstract thought processes (McDevitt & Ormrod 2010, p. 14).

At this age, learn and retain large quantities of information and both short-term and long-term memory improves significantly. They learn the basic academic skills of reading, writing, mathematics and other subject areas. Children begin to use logical thinking and individual intelligences begin to emerge (ACARA 2014).
The utmost care was used to ensure that the information provided within this presentation is valid, current, reliable and relevant. The credibility and reliability of the informational sources used in this presentation has been ensured through the use of recently revised and current materials published on official and institutional websites by experts in the field of child development.

Sources used include government, health and academic sites as well as peer-reviewed and well-cited journal articles from respected experts. Also used are government-endorsed websites and books written by developmental experts and published by renowned academic publishing houses.
This presentation focuses on child development from birth through middle childhood and includes research into the physical, cognitive, socio-emotional and language developmental domains.

It maps the physical progression from spontaneous reflexes and later rolling over, crawling, sitting, standing and eventually walking in infancy to the more autonomous movements of running, jumping, climbing and throwing in early childhood, and finally the development of skills of agility, balance, coordination, endurance, hand-eye coordination and gross- and fine-motor skills in middle childhood.

Cognitive development begins in the sensorimotor stage in infancy where infants learn to relate actions to results in cause-and-effect relationships and to recognise familiar faces, objects and places. This development progresses into the preoperational stage in early childhood where young children develop symbolic thinking abilities which enables them to think and talk about things beyond their immediate experience (McDevitt & Ormrod 2010, p. 198). Cognition develops rapidly in the concrete operations stage in middle childhood where children learn increasingly abstract concepts and thought processes, think more logically, learn to read and write, and have emergent individual intelligences (ACARA 2014).

Socio-emotional development begins in infancy with the formation of strong attachments to people and objects and the developing ability to self-soothe when tired or distressed. This development continues into early childhood where young children display a wide variety of emotions and familiarity with and use of labels for basic emotions (McDevitt & Ormrod 2010, p. 434). In middle childhood, socio-emotional development sees children develop bonds with peers and individuals outside of the home environment, the emergence of self-conscious and empathetic emotions, and the increasing ability to read other's and regulate their own emotions (Australian Institute of Family Studies 2015).

In infancy, babies learn the sounds, expressions and gestures that form the foundation of language development. They become increasingly adept at vocalising their pleasure or their distress, and become competent at using sounds, gestures and then words to communicate their feelings or desires (AIFS 2015). Language skills develop greatly in early childhood as young children learn how words symbolically represent people, objects, places and emotions (AIFS 2015). Middle childhood sees language development enhanced as children's vocabularies expand as they learn the relationships among words and meanings, the rules which govern language, and how to read and write (ACARA 2014).

Childhood is a period of enormous developmental growth where children begin life completely dependent on their carers for their every need and emerging as increasingly independent and confident individuals possessing the ability to manoeuvre and manipulate their bodies, think and learn independently, develop bonds and attachments to society, and communicate and express themselves effectively. While here child development has been demonstrated to progress though age-based stages, it should be noted that familial, cultural, ethnic, racial, socioeconomic, gender, intellectual and ability and disability diversities exist which may impact on the age in which children reach developmental milestones McDevitt & Ormrod 2010).
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