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Audiovisual Translation

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Maila Enea

on 14 March 2016

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Transcript of Audiovisual Translation

Audiovisual Translation
Where the world connects
What's AVT
Multimedia translation, also sometimes referred to as Audiovisual translation (AVT), is a specialized branch of translation which deals with the transfer of
multimodal
and
multimedial
texts into another language and/or culture [González].
Multimedia
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animation, video and interactive content.
Multimodality
Multimodality is a theory of communication and social semiotics. Multimodality describes communication practices in terms of the textual, aural, linguistic, spatial, and visual resources - or modes - used to compose messages.
"Multi-semiotic transfer"
[Taylor]
How many types of AVT?
- Subtitling
- Dubbing
- Voice-over
- Narration
- Commentary
- Surtitling
- Audiovisual Description
Subtitling
Subtitling refers to the translation or transcription of spoken dialogues in the form of a written text which appears on the bottom of the viewing screen.

Interlingual Subtitling
Interlingual subtitling literally is the subtitling between two languages [Gottlieb].
Intralingual subtitling is the subtitling within the same language [Gottlieb].
Subtitling
Dubbing
Surtitling
Linguistic Parameters
T
echnical Parameters
For Dialects
Intralingual Subtitling
For Language Learners or Teaching Purposes
For the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Open Subtitles
Open subtitles are subtitles that constitute part of the original film or broadcast and cannot be removed from the
screen [Gottlieb].
Closed Subtitles
Known also as "captions", they are usually encoded in the transmission signal, broadcast separately, and then selected by
those viewers on a remote-control unit with a teletext television set and a decoder.
Other Technical Parameters
JAN IVARSSON‘S CLASSIFICATION
OF SUBTITLES (1992)
EDUARD BARTOLL‘S CLASSIFICATION
OF SUBTITLES (2004)
New Types of Subtitles
Two major new
developments worth mentioning, either linguistically or technically, are interlingual subtitling for the deaf and hard of
hearing and amateur subtitling.
Interlingual SDH
Do people with hearing problems only watch programmes in their mother tongue and
never in a different language? Common sense tells us that the possibility of the latter cannot be ruled out.
Amateur Subtitling
As the nature of AVT foreshadows its close link with the latest technical developments, the emergence of new audiovisual products, like Internet, videogames or DVDs and the new computer-based techniques, necessitates new
subtitling possibilities.
Leech's semantic meanings
1. Conceptual Meaning =
logical, cognitive or connotative content;
2. Connotative Meaning =
what is communicated by virtue of what language refers;
3. Social Meaning =
what is communicated of the social circumstances of language;
4. Affective Meaning =
what is communicated of the feelings and attitudes of the speaker through language;
5. Reflected Meaning =
what is communicated through associations with another sense of the same world;
6. Collocative Meaning =
what is communicated through associations with words which co-occur with another word;
7. Thematic Meaning =
what is communicated by the way in which the message is organized in terms of order and emphasis.
Language Transfer Practices in the Media
Language transfer practices vary not only from one country to the next, but sometimes vary within the same country depending on the broadcast medium (cinema or television) or the target public (general public, cinema-enthusiast public, young people, public with accessibility problems).
In Cinema
In Television
Subtitling
Dubbing
Both
Subtitling
Dubbing
Voice-over
Originals
Language learning through Subtitles
Certain uses of subtitling can contribute to foreign language learning or create motivation to learn languages. Both interlingual and intralingual subtitles can be used to enhance our linguistic skills.
The role of subtitling in formal learning contexts
Intralingual
Pros
For
advanced
levels;
Decoding of the foreign language and pronunciation (
simultaneity
);
Learner's
independence
;
Redundancy
;
Phonetic-phonological
and
graphic
implicit learning;
Activating
prior

knowledge
;
Security
and lowering of the affective filter.

Interlingual
Pros
For
beginners
;
Understanding of the
original

meaning
;
Comparison between the
foreign

language
and the
mother tongue
;
Input
processing
, i.e. learning;
Security
and lowering of the affective filter.
Cons
Reduction
of dialogues:
Semiotic
depletion
;
Syntactic and lexical
generalization
.
But are they
actual
problems?
Simplification
must
not
be seen as a
limit
to the use of subtitled films in education, it may indeed favor the learning of a foreign language. In fact, if the student is committed to more visions of subtitled films, simplification plays a different role each time.
What does a subtitle need to be effective in learning?
To reflect the oral
prosodic

features
;
Frequency
of words;
Relevance
: intonation, word order and lexical derivation;
Accuracy
of translation;
Synchronised

subtitles
with the video;
Syntactic and grammatical
simplification
, but not semantic.
Space
The space is limited to 2 lines of subtitles which are usually placed and generally centred at the bottom of the screen. Each line cannot contain more than 35 characters (i.e. any letter, symbol or space). The subtitle (formed by 2 lines) can have up to 70 characters.
Time
A subtitle has a minimum duration of a second and a maximum duration of 6 seconds on screen. To read a complete subtitle of 2 lines and 70 characters, we will need at least 4 seconds, which house some 12 words. If we have less time, we must calculate less characters.
Spotting
Identifying the entrance and exit times of the subtitles synchronised with the audio, calculating the minimum and maximum duration times and considering the changes in camera shot and scene.
Translation
Translation from the original, adapting it and adjusting it to characters permitted according to the duration of the subtitle.
Simulation
Representation of the translated subtitles with the image and the audio to check that they meet all of the criteria and that they can be read in a natural way.
Correction
Correction of errors and readjustment of the text.
The process
of subtitling
consists of:
Some of the basic principle criteria
The cutting of the subtitle, the separation of the two lines, must not interrupt any phrase. A noun or adjective must not be separated in two different lines, nor a noun and a verb, as it must be a natural separation.
A short hyphen is used (-) in conversations to indicate that two people are speaking, with a hyphen on each line of the subtitle when someone else is speaking.
Italics are used for voices in off, and for songs and audio away from the scene of electronic devices.
Quotation marks (“...”), recognised abbreviations and figures are used, and where possible capital letters are avoided (used for titles, and signs or written content in the image).
The ideal final result is that the subtitles are synchronised with the audiovisual document, in such a way that it sounds natural and fluent, so much so that the spectator is almost unaware that they are reading and is absorbed in the image, the audio and the text.
Maila Enea, MA Student
The role of subtitling in informal learning contexts
See you later...
So... what about the role of subtitling in
informal
learning contexts?
Subtitling or Dubbing?
There is no negative correlation between being accustomed to dubbing and knowledge of foreign languages: the populations of dubbing countries speak other languages in addition to their mother tongue.
However
, the populations of dubbing countries do not speak more foreign languages than those of subtitling countries.
A correlation seems to exist between age, number of languages spoken and preference for subtitling or dubbing: the younger (aged 12-18 and 18-25) the more languages they speak, the more pronounced is their
preference for subtitling
over dubbing.
In addition, both kinds of age are convinced that subtitling is an
effective

tool
for language learning, unlike the over-25, who have more doubts about the effectiveness of subtitling from the educational point of view [EU Commision International Survey, 2009].
Statistics
In subtitling countries - such as Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden - an average of
86.5%
of the population master the second language as their mother tongue, and
41.4%
the third language;
In countries with a tradition of dubbing and voice-over,
73%
has an L2 and
28%
an L3.

Barriers to the use of Subtitling
Cultural Barriers
Physiological and psychological barriers
Economic barriers
Technological barriers
Legislative measures
What's lost?
1.
Expansion
: more information than in the original soundtrack is given in order to make the audience understand the content with less difficulty. This strategy is generally used to explain culturemes;
2.
Paraphrase
: the source text is changed and adapted so as to obtain a corresponding meaning without distorting the original communicative intentions;
3.
Transfer
: it reproduces both literally and in content the original soundtrack;
4.
Imitation
: the source-text verb phrases are reproduced by identical phrases in the target language;
5.
Transcription
: this strategy is mainly used to render idiomatic expressions, wordplays, or non-standard language in general;
6.
Dislocation
: it is used when musical effects or other peculiar communicative phenomena have to be rendered through verbal language;
7.
Condensation
: the same original message is translated in a more concise way but no information is removed;
8.
Decimation
: it consists of the deletion of elements that are important but not crucial for the audience understanding;
9.
Deletion
: it is very similar to the previous strategy. The elements considered totally irrelevant are removed;
10.
Resignation
: it happens when the original meaning is not rendered at all. It cannot be considered a proper subtitling strategy, but rather a very common phenomenon in translation.

Strategies by Gottlieb
What's the purpose of
all this? And the results are?
What is bad or good
Subtitling?
Baetens
J., Egoyan A., Balfour I. (2004) (Eds.), Subtitles. On the foreignness of film, Montreal: Alphabetic City and Cambridge, Mass., e London, Engl: MIT
Bianchi
, F.,
Ciabattoni
T. (2008), Didascalie e sottotitoli in EFL Learning: uno studio investigativo in un ambiente completo di computer
Blini
, L., Matte Bon, F. (1996), Osservazioni sui meccanismi di formazione dei sottotitoli, in Heiss – Bollettieri Bosinelli (1996), pp. 317-332
Bussi Parmiggiani
, E. (2002) Forme di attenzione e pluricodicità nel film sottotitolato, in A. Caimi (2002), pp. 177-198
Caimi
, A.-
Perego
, E. (2002), La sottotitolazione: lo stato dell’arte, in Caimi (2002), pp. 19-52
Capra
, U. (2005), Tecnologie per l’apprendimento linguistico, Roma, Carocci
Cipolloni
, M. (1996), La traduzione per il cinema come campo di studio e di ricerca, in Heiss - Bollettieri Bosinelli (1996), pp. 401-408
Díaz Cintas
J. - Fernández Cruz M. (2008), Using Subtitled Video Materials for Foreign Language Instruction, in Díaz Cintas (2008), pp. 201-214
Díaz Cintas, J. (2008) (ed.), The Didactics of Audiovisual Translation, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing Company
European Commission
(2011), Study on the use of subtitling, EACEA/2009/01, pp. 10-22
Falcinelli
, F. (1995), Audiovisivi e tecnologie nella pratica didattica, Roma, Anicia
González
, Luis Pérez. "Audiovisual Translation", in Baker, Mona and Gabriela Saldanha (eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, London, 2009, p. 13.
King
, J. (2002) ‘Using DVD feature films in the EFL classroom’, in Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15, 5, pp. 509-523
Lonergan
, J. (1989), Video in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press
MCG/Peacefulfish
(2007), ‘Etude des besoins et pratiques de l’industrie audiovisuelle européenne en matière de doublage et de sous-titrage’ ('Study of the dubbing and subtitling needs and practices of the European audiovisual industry'), European Commission
Murray
, Joddy (2013). Lutkewitte, Claire, ed. "Composing Multimodality". Multimodal Composition: A Critical Sourcebook (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's).
Nobili
, P. (1996), ‘Cinema(to)grafo. L’uso didattico dei sottotitoli per l’apprendimento delle lingue straniere’, in Studi Italiani di Linguistica Teorica e Applicata, 24 (1), pp. 151-173
Pavesi
, M. - Perego E. (2008), Tailor-made Interlingual Subtitling as a Means to Enhance Second Language Acquisition, in Díaz Cintas (2008), pp. 215-225
Pavesi, M. (2002), Sottotitoli: dalla semplificazione nella traduzione all’apprendimento linguistico, in Caimi (2002), pp. 127-142
Perego
, E. (2005), La traduzione audiovisiva, Roma, Carocci
Taylor
, C. (1996), The Relevance of Film Dubbing and Subtitling to Language Teaching, in Heiss - Bollettieri Bosinelli (1996), pp. 271-277
Taylor, C. (2000b), In Defence of the Word: Subtitles as Conveyors of Meaning and Guardians of Culture, in Bollettieri Bosinelli (2000), pp. 153-166.

References
Thank
you!
Expansion
DIRECTOR
Thank you.
Lovely diction, Mr...
LIONEL
Logue. Lionel Logue.

DIRECTOR
Well, Lionel, I didn’t hear the
cries of a deformed creature
yearning to be King.

LIONEL
Yes.
DIRECTOR
Nor did I realize Richard
the Third was Kingof the Colonies.
Paraphrase

LIONEL
Well have your
hubby

pop
by
...Tuesday would be good... to
give his personal history. I’ll
make a frank appraisal and we will start from there.

ELIZABETH
Doctor... forgive me, I do not have a
hubby
. We don’t
pop
. And nor do we ever talk about our private lives.
No, you must come to us.
Transfer
BERTIE
In this grave hour, perhaps the
most fateful in our history, I send
to every household of my peoples,
both at home and overseas this
message spoken with the same depth
of feeling for each one of you as
if I were able to cross your
threshold and speak to you myself.
For the second time in the lives of most of us we are at war.
Imitation
BBC NEWS READER
Good afternoon. This is the
BBC
National Programme and Empire
Service
taking you to Wembley
Stadium for the Closing Ceremony of the
Empire Exhibition
.
Transcription
KING GEORGE V
Herr Hitler, intimidating half of
Europe, Marshall Stalin the other half...
Who will stand between us, the
jackboots
and the proletarian
abyss? You?
Dislocation
BERTIE
(singing)
“... this message,
doo-dah, doo-dah
....
spoken with the same depth
of feeling
doo dah day
...for each one of you as
if I were to fuck shit bugger cross
your threshold and speak to you...
Condensation
…departing this life, as equals.

…congedandosi da questa vita come suo pari.

Decimation
LIONEL
That was very good, Bertie.
You still stammered on the “w”
.

BERTIE
Had to throw in a few so they knew
it was me.
Deletion
BERTIE
Ah... I can’t possibly read this.
LIONEL
Then you owe me
a shilling for not trying.

Resignation
LIONEL
Another deep breath and

Jack and Jill
”.
BERTIE
Jack and Jill…
LIONEL
Went up the hill...
BERTIE
Went up the hill…

The King's Speech


Grazie.
Meravigliosa dizione, signor…

Lionel Logue.
Australiano
.


Bene, signor Logue.
Io non sento le grida
di una creatura deformata
-che brama di essere re.

-Sì.

Né mi ero reso conto che Riccardo
III fosse un re delle Colonie.

Bene, il
maritino
dovrà fare un
salto
qui.
Martedì andrebbe bene.
Mi darà i suoi dettagli personali,
io farò una valutazione schietta
e poi partiremo da lì.


Dottore, perdonatemi…
Io non ho un
maritino
,
non facciamo un
salto
e non vogliamo mai parlare
della nostra vita privata.
No, voi dovete venire da noi.
In questa grave… ora…
…forse la più fatidica…
…della nostra storia,
invio…
…in ogni casa
del mio… eh, popolo…
…sia in patria…
…che oltremare…
…questo messaggio.
Rivolto con la stessa profondità
di sentimenti…
…a ognuno di voi…
…come se fossi capace
di varcare… la vostra soglia
e parlarvi… personalmente.
Per la seconda volta
nella vita di molti di noi,
noi siamo in…
…in guerra.


Buon pomeriggio.
Questa è la
BBC National
Programme & Empire Service
che vi porta allo stadio di Wembley
per la cerimonia di chiusura
dell’
Empire Exhibition
.

Herr Hitler
Che intimidisce mezza Europa,
Il maresciallo Stalin l’altra metà.
Chi si schiererà tra noi, i
Nazistivali
e il proletario abisso?
Tu?
Questo messaggio
#du-da#
,
#rivolto con la stessa
profondità di
du-da-day#
A ognuno di voi,
come se fossi capace di…
merda, fottiti, bastardo,
varcare la vostra soglia
e parlare con voi…


Bravissimo Bertie.
C’era ancora qualche balbettio.



Ho dovuto farlo qui e lì,
così sapevano che ero io.
Ehm… io… io non posso leggerlo.

Uno scellino
per non averci provato.


Un altro respiro profondo
e “
La vispa Teresa
”.

-La vispa Teresa…

-Avea tra l’erbetta…

Avea tra l’erbetta…


Applied Strategies
Let's
practice!
Full transcript