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EARLY CHILDHOOD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

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NINA RICCI SANTOS

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of EARLY CHILDHOOD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
(ability to recognise and control their feelings to other people, objects, situations & experiences)

By age 1-3 - wants to learn new things but impatient at own abilities which leads to temper/tantrums.
from 4-6 - can control emotions better, can determine right from wrong and increased abilities decrease tantrums


(WebMD, 2013)
P.L.I.E.S DEVELOPMENT
(Physical, Language, Intellectual, Emotional & Social)

FACTORS AFFECTING EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS


Parenting style is positively link to
A CHILDS…..

Educational attainment
Well-being
Social mobility

AIM
 To define growth and development

 To discuss early childhood growth and development in their physically, language, intellectual, emotional and social

 To discuss how Growth Hormone and Thyroid Hormone plays important role in early childhood.

 To identify the factors that affects early childhood development

 To discuss briefly how Parenting Style and Socio-economic class influences a child's development.

EARLY CHILDHOOD : GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Presented by: Nina Ricci Santos
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

• GROWTH

- refers to the increases in height and weight and other body changes that occur as a child matures, Kids Health. (2014).

- Growth is supported by good nutrition, adequate sleep, and regular exercise.


•DEVELOPMENT
-
is how children gain control over their physical actions to do complicated and difficult activities more skilfully and easily.

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
(includes motor development, sleep, body weight, nutrition, and medical care)


slows down from the rapid growth during infancy.
From age 2 through age 6, most children gain about 3 lb - 5 lb/year and grow about 3 in./yr

(WebMD, 2013)
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
(process of learning the attitudes which enable to live easily with other members of their community)

2 yrs old - excited about being around other children and like to play near each other rather than with each other (parallel play).
6 yrs old - most children seek and enjoy friendships
(WebMD, 2013)
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
(includes verbal and non-verbal communication)

By age 2- can say at least 50 words)
By age 6 - may know thousands of words and be able to carry on conversation and tell stories
(WebMD, 2013)
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
(thinking and reasoning skills)

progresses from a simple to a more complex understanding of time, letters, counting, and colours.

(WebMD, 2013)
HORMONES PRESENT IN
EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS
Physical factors
Genetic inheritance
Hormone
Diet
Amount and type of physical exercise
Illness or disease

Growth Hormone
(Image source: Atlanta Wellness and Aesthetics, 2014)

Thyroid Hormone
promotes growth in children and helps maintain body structures and metabolism including maintaining normal glucose level.
(Society for Endocrinology, 2013)

affects development of all tissues except the Central Nervous system and genitals.
(Berk, L. 2012)

(Somatotropin; GH; human growth hormone; HGH.)
(Image source: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2010)
GROWTH HORMONE INCREASES
stress, sleeping, and if the blood glucose level drops, high level of amino acid and also increase around the time of puberty

HIGH LEVEL OF GROWTH HORMONE CAN CAUSE:
Causes too much growth. In children gigantism adult is called acromegaly.
99% cases are due to a benign tumour in pituitary gland.

GROWTH HORMONE LOWERED:
if the brain sense high level of growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor already in the blood and decrease in amino acid.

LOW LEVEL OF GROWTH HORMONE CAN CAUSE:
results in poor growth in children. (growth hormone deficiency)
can be caused by genetic or due to injury to the pituitary gland during development or at birth.

TREATMENT:
is to replace the growth hormone using injections either once a day or several times a week.
(Society for Endocrinology, 2013).

Essential for physical and mental development.

Increase protein synthesis, and promote glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose uptake

Main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. 

Necessary for metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development, and maintenance of bones and for GH to have its full impact on body size.
 (Berk, L. 2012)
thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
(Image source: Austin Community College District, 2014)

LOW LEVEL OF THYROXIN (Thyroxin deficiency / hypothyroidism)
Caused by autoimmune disease, poor iodine intake or use of certain drugs. Sometimes the cause is unknown.
(BendoMD, 2012)
Can cause mentally retardation
Once the children’s brain fully developed, it can no longer affects the central nervous system but still causes children to grow more slowly than average.
 With immediate treatment, children will grow according to their milestone
(Berk, L. 2012)
HIGH LEVEL OF THYROXINE (Thyrotoxicosis or Hyperthyroidism)
Caused by over activity of the thyroid gland as in Graves' disease, inflammation of the thyroid or abenign tumour. 
Can be recognised by a goitre (swelling of the neck due to enlargement of the thyroid gland) 

OTHER SYMPTOMS OF THYROTOXICOSIS INCLUDE:
intolerance to heat, weight loss, increased appetite, increased bowel movements, irregular menstrual cycle, rapid or irregular heartbeat, palpitations, tiredness, irritability, tremor, hair loss and retraction of the eyelids resulting in a ‘staring’ appearance. 
(BendoMD, 2012)

Social / emotional factors 
Gender
Environment
Family and friends relationships
Parenting style
Cultural background and beliefs
Educational experiences
Employment/Unemployment
key finding:
Flouri, E. & Buchanan, A. (2004) research suggests…

A good father-child relations are associated with emotional and behavioural difficulties in adolescence and educational attainment

Ermisch, J., Iacovou, M. and Skew, A. (2011) based on understanding society (UK’s Household Longitudinal Study)
…..

A good quality relationships between parents and their children is directly link to a child’s cognitive and emotional development

Ermisch,J. (2008) Origins of social mobility and inequality: parenting and early child development.

A supportive home learning environment is positively associated to children’s early achievements and wellbeing.

STRENGTH
It provides a robust data to raise awareness in regards to HOW TO PROPERLY LOOK AFTER CHILDREN.

WEAKNESSES
Other variables were not considered such as a child’s inborn temperament

It cannot be considered to the whole of population

(Image source: Megann1992, 2014)

What is parenting?

It is about how a parent might act or react to the child. It can include:
 Beliefs
 Expectations
 Values
 How you discipline your children
 How you support them.
(Image source: Src2Dubz, 2012)

Social class of a person

There are 7 different hierarchies of class in the UK based on income and employment status.

WHAT IS SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS?
D Acheson, Inequalities in Health: Report of an Independent Inquiry, HMSO, (1998)
Those with higher incomes have healthier children than those below poverty line.

C Power, O Manor and Jo Fox, Health and Class; The Early Years, Chapman and Hall (1991)
Poverty is directly associated with birth defects, disabilities, decreased birthweight, acute and chronic illness etc,. That normally leads to higher infant mortality rate.

P.J Meis, R Michielutte, et al. (1997) ‘Factors Associated with Term Low Birthweight in Cardiff, Wales’.
Infants living in poor and deprived areas were twice as likely to be born prematurely.

Professor Spencer, N, End Child Poversity, Warwick University,
Even after birth, children living in poor houeholds are likely to live in unsafe housing, play un unsafe areas and live closer to main roads increasing the risks of childhood death.

KEY FINDINGS:
(Image source: End Child Poverty, 2014)

Children aged 5-15 who live in a household with only £100 budget are more likely to have mental disorders than those family earning £770 per week such as self-harming or schizophrenia
STRENGTH:
It is evident in our day to day living that the privilege or those in higher social class have easier access to health.

WEAKNESSES:
Mental and physically health problems can happen to any people across socio-economic class

Most of the studies were only done in England therefore cannot be applied to the general population


Atlanta Wellness and Aesthetics. (2014). ‘HGH: Human Growth and Development’. [Online Image]. Available at: http://www.atlantawellnessandaesthetics.com/doctors/wp-content/uploads/HGH-Human-Growth-Hormone.jpg . [Accessed 15th May 2014]

Austin Community College District. (2014). ‘Endocrine System’. [Online Image]. Available at: http://www.austincc.edu/apreview/PhysText/Endocrine.html. [Accessed 15th May 2014]

BendoMd. (2011). ‘Factors that influence child growth and development’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bendomd.com/473-factors-that-influence-child-growth-and-development.html. [Accessed 16th May. 2014]

Berk, L. (2012). ‘Child Development’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/showcase/berkcd9e/assets/pdf/Berk_0205149766_Ch5.pdf. [Accessed 15th May, 2014]

Economic & Social Research. (2014). ‘Parenting style influences child development and social mobility’ . [Online]. Available at: http://www.esrc.ac.uk/_images/parenting-style-social-mobility_tcm8-20071.pdf. [Accessed 14th May 2014]

End Child Poverty. (2014). ‘Health Consequences of Poverty for Children’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.endchildpoverty.org.uk/files/Health_consequences_of_Poverty_for_children.pdf. [Accessed 15th May, 2014]

Justra. (2014). ‘Basic Facts of Early Childhood Education Parents Should Know’. [Online Image]. Available at: http://www.eduvideo.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Early-Childhood-Education.jpg. [Accessed 15th May 2014]

Megann1992. (2014). ‘Being A Kid Childhood’. [Online Image]. Available at: http://images5.fanpop.com/imagephotos/28800000/Childhood-being-a-kid-28819412-495-330.jpg . [Accessed 15th May 2014]

Society for Endocrinology. (2013). ‘Growth Hormone’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/growth_hormone.aspx [Accessed 15th May 2014]

Src2Dubz. (2012). ‘Parenting Style’. [Online Image]. Available at: http://perlapalacios.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/parenting-style.jpg. [Accessed on 15th May 2014]

WebMd. (2013). ‘Growth and Development, Ages 2 to 5 Years - Topic Overview’. [Online]. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/children/tc/growth-and-development-ages-2-to-5-years-topic-overview. [Accessed 16th May, 2014]
REFERENCES
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