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The Contributions of Scientists to Evolution

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Andy Hui

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of The Contributions of Scientists to Evolution

The Contributions of Scientists
To The Fluid Mosaic Model

By: Andy Hui
Time Spam: 23 A.D to Present Day
Hans Horst Meyer
James Danieilli, Huge davson, E. Newton Harvey
Charles Ernest Overton
Irving Langmuir
Agnes Pockels
E. Gorter and F. Grendel
Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll
Rudolf Höber
Julius Bernstein
Hugo Fricke
Henri Edgar Devaux
Robert Chambers and M. J. Kopac
Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson
Scale = 10 years
Year of contribution: 1896
Year of contribution (approximately): 1914
Year of contribution(approximately): 1970
Year of Contribution: 1901
year of contribution: 1935
Year of contribution: 1880
year of contribution: 1931
Year of contribution: 1972
George E. Palade
Hans Moor and K. Mühlethaler
year of contribution: 1961
Mary Kraft, Peter Weber and Joshua Zimmerberg
year of contribution: 2013
year of contribution: 1923
Benjamin Franklin
date of contribution:
April 10th, 1774
- One of the first people to experiment on fluid mosaic model; dropped a teaspoon of oil into the Clapham Common Pond.
-observed the calming effect that oil had on ocean waters; oil formed a layer above the water "as smooth as a looking glass"
Lord Raleigh (John William Strutt)
(1842- 1919)
-continued to conduct research off of Benjamin Franklin's Experiment
-did quantitative experiments to measure the area of an oil sample expanding and the thickness of the oil film
- calculated the oil film thickness to be 16 x 10^-8 cm
year of contribution: 1890
Scale: 1cm= 10 years
=1 cm
600 B.C
570 B.C
350 B.C
10 cm
Works Cited
-these facts are credited to Optics and Photonic News (http://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_20/issue_6/features/lord_rayleigh_a_scientific_life/#.U01WPVODnTo); SHIPS resource center (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm); and Time toast (http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-scientific-contributions-and-process-towards-the-creation-of-the-fluid-mosaic-model-of-the-cell-membrane)
-These facts are credited to Stark(https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2013/Jan/012813_cells.html)
-These facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf) and Marie-Luise Blue (http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/freeze-fracturing-useful-cell-biology-36542.html)
-These facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf) and Sim science (http://simscience.org/membranes/advanced/essay/revealing_cell_mem.html) and McGraw hill ryerson (Edwards, Trent Carter, Susanne Gerards, Keith Gibbons, Susan McCallum, Robert Noble, Jennifer Parrington, Clyde Ramlochan, and Sharon Ramlochan)
-These facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf)
-These facts are credited to The Paulings Blog(https://paulingblog.wordpress.com/tag/charles-ernest-overton/); spokeo (http://www.spokeo.com/Ernst+Von+Bibra+1); and PMC (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1911515/)
-These facts are credited to Biophysical Journal (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3552257/); Eichman (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm) and time toast (http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-scientific-contributions-and-process-towards-the-creation-of-the-fluid-mosaic-model-of-the-cell-membrane)
-These facts are credited to Optics and Photonic News (http://www.osa-opn.org/home/articles/volume_20/issue_6/features/lord_rayleigh_a_scientific_life/#.U01WPVODnTo); to Agnes Pockels (http://www.agnespockelslabor.de/en/agnes.html); and time toast (http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-scientific-contributions-and-process-towards-the-creation-of-the-fluid-mosaic-model-of-the-cell-membrane)
-These facts are credited to Eichman (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm); What Is Life (http://www.whatislife.com/education/fact/history_table.html); and PMC (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2130960/)
-These facts are credited to about (http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/microscope_2.htm) and McGraw Hill (https://www.inkling.com/read/biology-peter-raven-9th/chapter-5/the-structure-of-membranes)
-These facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf) and PMC (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2140799/) and Cold Spring Habor Laboratory (http://library.cshl.edu/personal-collections/hugo-fricke)
-These facts are credited to the JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf) and Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology (http://www.amazon.com/films-water-mercury-Henri-Devaux/dp/B0008B1QN6) and Read Cube (http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb56112.x?locale=en)
-These facts are credited to the Rockefeller University (http://www.rockefeller.edu/about/awards/lasker/gpalade); time toast (http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-scientific-contributions-and-process-towards-the-creation-of-the-fluid-mosaic-model-of-the-cell-membrane) and JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf)
-These facts are credited to Cells are us (http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/Cell_Biology/module_2/storytime2.htm); Eichman (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm) and What is Life (http://www.whatislife.com/education/fact/history_table.html)
-These facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf)
-These facts are credited to Eichman (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm); Tutor Vista (http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/biomembranes/unit-membrane.php#) and JCB http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf)
-These facts are credited to Eichman (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm); Chem heritage Foundation (http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-history/themes/microelectronics-and-nanotechnology/langmuir-blodgett.aspx) and Virginia Tech (http://www.research.vt.edu/resmag/sciencecol/surface_chem.html)
-These facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf)
-spread "monomolecular films" (Biophysical journal, 2014) on many bodies of water to conclude the idea of particle repulsion.
-considered the forces that causes oil to spread on water surface to conclude: there to be no natural repulsion between air and water; noted that oil and water did not mix forming a film above the water.
-conducted experiments from Thomas Young's research
- dropped approximately 0.81mg of olive oil into a sponge bath
-studied the effects of surface tension and water with only her kitchen equipment.
-created an apparatus called "Schieberinne" to measure differences in surface tension of water with other substances
- analyzed the behavior of surface tension of water with soluble substances
-recognized by Lord Raleigh, and in 1892, calculated the thickness of the oil film to be 13 x10 ^-8cm
this picture is credited to (http://thehistoryjunkie.com/benjamin-franklin-facts/)
Benjamin Franklin
Agnes Pockels
These pictures are credited to (http://www.agnespockelslabor.de/en/agnes.html)
Lord Raleigh (John William Strutt)
this picture is credited to http://www.nndb.com/people/497/000099200/
-studied Ernst von Bibra’s theory of anesthesia (1847) which states that anesthetics dissolve and takes out fatty constituents from brain cells thus changing their activity and causing anesthesia.
-theorized similarly in which hydrophobic anesthetics were attracted to other hydrophobic molecules such as lipids in the brain so anesthetics bonded with and dissolved lipids.
-his new found understanding of the relationship between the two led him to experiment on tadpoles
-he concluded that there was an correlation between lipid solubility and anesthetic potency
Hans Horst Meyer
This picture is credited to (http://www.historiadelamedicina.org/meyer.html)
-Theorized 3 things: lipid theory of cell permeability, lipid theory of narcosis and involvement of Na+/ K+ exchange
-created Overton's lipid theory of plasma permeability
-hypothesized that membranes are composed of lipids because substances that dissolve in lipids enter cells faster than those that are insoluble.
- concluded that the membrane was made up of lecithin and cholesterol
23 A.D
Pliny the Elder
This picture is credited to (http://partingglassblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/pliny-the-elder.jpg)
Pliny the Elder
(23 A.D - 79 A.D)
-was the first in recorded history to inquire about the effects between oil and water
-observed and talked about a calming effect between oil and sea water
-recorded it in the "
Natural History
" encyclopedia written by him
-"'. . . sea water is made smooth by oil, and so divers sprinkle oil on their face because it calms the rough element. . ." (Tanford 1989)'". (Eichman, 2014)
These facts are credited to Virginia Tech (http://www.research.vt.edu/resmag/sciencecol/surface_chem.html); Eichman (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm) and Wolfram (http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/PlinytheElder.html)
Charles Ernest Overton
This picture is credited to (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-L3pd2Ftw6dw/UfCONB_XTaI/AAAAAAAAANg/PvCanF_eZfI/s1600/overton.jpg)
-discovered that the ability of a substance to pass through the membrane correlated to the chemical nature
Year of contribution: 1917
-studied Surface chemistry which is the study of chemical forces acting between the interfaces of different substances
-developed the concept of absorption which is the adhesion of atoms or molecules to a surface.
-discovered that the layer of accumulated atoms on the surface is only one molecule thick; which was made out to be a monolayer, or monomolecular film.
-tweaked Agnes Pockel's device and called it the "Langmuir Blodgett Trough" to make accurate measurements of surface area given the amount
-He hypothesized that the fatty acid molecules form a monolayer by grouping together vertically while hydrocarbon chains are not in contact with water and the carboxyl groups are in contact with water
Irving Langmuir
This picture is credited to http://(www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1932/langmuir_postcard.jpg)
- said external Na molecules are exchanged for internal K ions
year of contribution: 1925
- conducted experiments to extract lipids from red blood cells using acetone and a device similar to the Langmuir trough
- concluded that lipids could form a monolayer and also a bilayer
- discovered the surface area red blood cells (cells from the monolayer) to be twice that of the lipid cells
-concluded that red blood cells are covered with a fatty substance that is two molecules thick
- one of the first to propose a possible structure and orientation for the membrane that was proved , later on, to be mostly correct
E. Gorter and F. Grendel
picture is credited to (http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/bwn1880-2000/lemmata/bwn1/images/GORTER.jpg) & (http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm)
Lipid Layer Evidence
E. Gorter
picture credited to http://www.ethanperlstein.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/GorterGrendel-647x694.jpg
concluded there was a molecule thickness of factor 2
arrangement of bilayer
-did not completely extract lipids and were slightly inaccurate in the surface area of red blood cells
-Danielli discovered that proteins could be adsorbed to oil droplets taken from mackerel eggs, working in Harvey's lab
-Danielli and Davson proposed the first accepted membrane model which was a "'sandwich of lipids"'(Eichman, 2014) while the proteins remained outside surrounding the proteins in a bilayer. The electrically charged heads facing towards the water and the poly adenine tails facing inwards.
- Danielli and Davson proposed that without proteins in the membrane to help certain chemicals move, certain processes would not occur
- made an error in the location of the proteins
James Danielli, Hugh Davson and E. Newton Harvey
picture credited to (http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ImportedImages/Schools/BMS/People/History/JamesDanielli140x180.jpg) and http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm
James Danielli
Globular protein membrane model
J. David Robertson
Year of contribution: 1957
-modified the Danielli and Davson membrane model according to electron microscope studies that he refereed to as "unit membrane"
- noticed a 3 layer arrangement; a "trilaminar appearance that has two darker outer lines and a lighter inner part: (dark-light-dark arrangement)
- the concept of various membranes in a cell are in unit membranes became valid however: Cell membrane, membranes of endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex and lysosomes are unit membranes but nuclear membrane, membranes of mitochondria are double unit membranes.
J. David Robertson
Roberson Model of Unit Membrane
picture is credited to http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/Robertson.jpg)
-co-invented and constructed the electron microscope
-electrons are accelerated until their wavelength is about one hundredth of the wavelength of white light in a vacuum and then are focused on cell sample which become absorbed or scatters by the cell parts to form an image on electron-sensitive photographic plate.
-can see down to about 10 angstroms
-helped to formulate the unit membrane model by J. David Robertson
-allows scientist to observe the delicate structure of the membrane
Ernest Ruska and Max Knoll
picture is credited to http://ernst.ruska.de/daten_d/personen/personen_archiv/knoll_max/_grafiken/img.ER_Knoll1967.gif and http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Ernst_Ruska_Electron_Microscope_-_Deutsches_Museum_-_Munich-edit.jpg
electron microscope (original- zoom in to see)
year of contribution:
-proposed his theory: "Membrane Theory of Electrical Potentials" that could be seen in cells and tissue
- theory stated that all living cells contained an electrolyte interior that was enclosed by a thin membrane that was impermeable to ions.
- hypothesized about an electrical potential difference present in the membrane at rest and that the ion permeability value would decline into a small value when there is activity
-later proved correct by german scientist: Rudolf Höber
these facts are credited to JCB (http://jcb.rupress.org/content/91/3/189s.full.pdf) and Springer Link (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00422-005-0031-y)
Julius Bernstein
picture is credited to http://www.bccn-goettingen.de/AboutBCCN/julius_bernstein.jpg
year of contribution: 1910
- measured electrical resistance to alternating current of clump of red blood cells centrifuged in sucrose.
- discovered that the resistance was considered to be high at 1 kilocycle/ second and low at 10 megacycles/ second
-discovered 10 megacycles/ second to be the resistance of a 0.4% NaCl solution
Rudolf Höber
picture is credited to http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Rudolf_Hoeber_1873-1953.jpg/220px-Rudolf_Hoeber_1873-1953.jpg
-measured "capacitance of the red blood cell membrane to be 0.81μF/cm^2
-he calculated the thickness of the membrane to be 33 Angstroms assuming that the membrane is an oil film with a dielectric constant of 3
-this led to the first indication that the membrane had molecular dimensions and a unitary structure
Hugo Ficke
picture credited to http://image1.findagrave.com/photos250/photos/2010/358/63296556_129330879729.jpg
Henri Edgar Devaux
- experimented on oil films on water and protein monolayers at both air with water and oil with water interfaces
- conducted an experiment where he agitated a solution with albumen with benzene and water and saw with a certain amount of albumen, the benzene would form droplets and the albumen spread at the oil-water complex into a monolayer
-there was a low surface tension
picture is credited to http://www.amazon.com/films-water-mercury-Henri-Devaux/dp/B0008B1QN6
Book written by Henri Devaux on the oil-water complex
year of contribution: (approximately) 1930
-conducted experiments of an oil droplet interacting with a bare marine egg
-observed that the oil droplet passed through the surface and appeared as a "a droplet on the cytoplasmic side"(Robertson 2014).
- also observed that if two droplets were used on different areas and the seawater was shaken, the droplets moved relative to each other
-used unfertilized arbacia eggs immersed in acids of pH 6 and pH 9 in calcium chloride solution and compared it to eggs in acid sea water of pH 6 and 6.8 and natural sea water with pH 8.2
-noted that the surface tensions differed
Robert Chambers and M. J. Kopac
picture is credited to http://www.amazon.com/films-water-mercury-Henri-Devaux/dp/B0008B1QN6
-polished a method created by Dr. Albert Claude called cell fractionation which allowed one to separate the parts of a cell to be observed under an electron microscope
-observed the endoplasmic reticulum to be a series of folded membranes that take up most of the cytosol and also observed ribosomes attached to the sides.
-also discovered microcosm, mitochondria, lysosome, vacuoles
-discovered endoplasmic system
- deciphered the structure of mitochondria and saw that microsomes are involved in internal cellular transport system
-method was to grind the cell to break the cell membrane and then used centrifugation to sort the organelles by mass for additional examination
George E. Palade
Picture is credited to (http://www.rockefeller.edu/about/awards/lasker/gpalade)
-given that the proteins were able to penetrate through the lipid bilayer, they proposed a new model such that the proteins were not fixed on the membrane and moved with fluidity
-proposed that the outer and inner surfaces could be seen as a largely naked lipids and the protein could be seen as macromolecules placed in the lipid bilayer in an iceberg-like manner
-singer visualized the proteins that stretch across to the other face of the bilayer to have water filled holes in the center that helped in membrane transportation
-conducted experiments that fused human cells to mice cells and observed the both types of cells to be on their respective sides of the cell but in 40 minutes, the proteins were evenly distributed on the membrane
Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson
picture credited to http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-yf1G86MP2U0/UQWiTlHOS7I/AAAAAAAAS18/a3N4dNBXdIQ/s640/Jonathan+Singer+nikolson.jpg and http://www1.umn.edu/ships/9-2/membrane.htm
-polished a technique called Freeze Fracture Etch electron microscopy that was created by R. L. Steere in 1957
- involves splitting frozen cell membranes apart
- observed that membranes fractured transversely result in the same appearance found in sections of triple-layered unit membranes
-became important in determining the structure of the membrane
Hans Moor and K. Mühlethaler
picture credited to http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/membr9.jpg
-used a specialized technique that allowed them to examine the membrane and map a specific type of lipid onto the cell membranes of a mouse; they put lipids with rare stable isotopes into the mouse cells and imaged it
-found out that sphingolipids which are molecules that were thought to interact with cholesterol, in reality, do not work in the same way as originally thought and that lipids still formed domains
- found that the presence of domains was affected by cholesterol but he cytoskeleton had a bigger impact
year of contribution: 2003
Juan C.Sáez, Viviana M. Berthoud, María C. Brañes, Agustín D. Martínez, and Eric C. Beyer
-used new approaches and studies to expand knowledge on integral membrane proteins that form hexamers that are called connexons
-two connexons that are docked together form a gap junction channel which are in charge of transferring ions and small molecules and propagation of inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium waves.
- new studies on protein trafficking/assembly, phosphorylation, and interactions with other connexins or other proteins have been reached
these facts a credited to American Physiology Society http://physrev.physiology.org/content/83/4/1359.long
Mary Kraft, Peter Weber and Joshua Zimmerberg
picture is credited to https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2013/Jan/012813_cells.html
15N-sphingolipid in plasma membrane of a fibroblast cell
Juan C.Sáez, Viviana M. Berthoud, María C. Brañes, Agustín D. Martínez, and Eric C. Beyer
picture is credited to http://physrev.physiology.org/content/83/4/1359.long
E. Hermans
year of contribution: 2003
-original thought was that a specific receptor would reacts with a particular GTP-binding protein or with several in only one family but the studies conducted show that for many G-proteins- coupled receptors (GPCR) simultaneous functional coupling with other G-proteins can be analyzed to see that intracellular effectors can be activated at that time.
- many new biochemical and pharmacological proof was discovered to support the new features of GPCR
these facts are credited to Web of Science http://cel.webofknowledge.com/InboundService.do?product=CEL&SID=1Ct5UtS3ZBFZooTKmKZ&UT=000183847200003&SrcApp=Highwire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&Func=Frame&SrcAuth=Highwire&customersID=Highwire&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord
Professor Thomas J. Jentsch and Team
Year of contribution: 2014
- discovered the identity of this particular chloride channel to be an anion channel called VRAC.
-a molecule called LRRC8A that is an important component of VRAC which is an anion channel protein that has its volume regulated.
-the swelling of the cell releases chloride ions and organic matter such as osmolytes from the cell initiates the activation of a particular chloride channel which is a membrane protein that can allow for chloride ions to travel
-discovered the importance of cell volume regulation such as if the cell volume is exceeded then osmolytes and many small amino acids can pass through but cations like potassium and sodium cannot pass through
these facts are credited to http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140416112810.htm
Professor Thomas J. Jentsch and Team
picture is credited to science daily http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140416112810.htm
Y.Zhao, W. Zhang, Y. Kho
year of contribution: 2004
-studied effective methods for identifying integral proteins
-important to avoid contamination from subcellular organelles and proteins in the cytoplasm for accurate proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins
-recognized a method for purification (BDAP) which uses biotinylation of cell surface membranes and other important steps
these facts are credited to PMC http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15053638
Works cited cont.
Full transcript