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Revolution: South African Apartheid
Transcript of Revolution: South African Apartheid
ANC represented the main opposition to the government during apartheid and played a major role in resolving the conflict through participating in the peacemaking and peace-building processes. What is the National Party? What is the African National Congress? (founded in 1915) the party governed the country from 1948 to 1994
sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats
policies included Apartheid, the establishment of republic, and promotion of the Afrikaner culture What is Apartheid? Apartheid is an Afrikaans word for the system of racial segregation through the National Party's legislation
literally translated means "the status of being apart" 1651 Dutch settlers arrive in South Africa, with Brittish arrive shortly after
1652 Dutch establish the port of Cape Town
1756 Dutch imports slaves from West Africa, Malaysia, and India, establishing the dominance of whites over non-whites in the region.
1852 British take control of Cape Town
1867 Diamonds discovered and mining begins; Africans are given most dangerous jobs, paid far less than white workers, & housed in fenced, patrolled barracks. Oppressive conditions & constant surveillance keep Africans from organizing for better wages and working conditions
1886 Gold is discovered in Johannesburg, making the city rich. History History Cont. 1899-1902 Dutch settlers fight British in the Boer (Dutch farmers) War. Britain eventually gains control of South Africa.
1908 constitutional convention is held to establish South African independence from Britain. The all-white government decided non-whites can vote but can't hold office. Few people in the new government object, believing that South Africa would be more stable if Africans were treated better.
1910 South Africa becomes an independent nation
1912 ANC is formed
1915 National Party is formed
1918 Secret Broederbond (brotherhood) established to advance the Afrikaner cause References: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918
http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/HIS135/Events/mandela94.htm History Cont. 1948 Policy of apartheid adopted when National Party takes power.
1952 The ANC begins the Campaign for Defiance of Unjust Laws as a protest against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela; (first large-scale, multi-racial political mobilization against apartheid laws)
1960 67 Africans are killed while protesting Apartheid; ANC is banned
1962 Mandela is arrested for plotting against the government and is sentenced to life in prison; he stays politically active
Late 1960s - 1990 many revolts and protests were organized around the resistance to Apartheid and Mandela's imprisonment
ANC is unbanned; Mandela is released from prison after 27 years
1994 Mandela is sworn in as president Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada Alternative Voices Government banned certain forms of media during Apartheid
As a result, different abolitionists groups smuggled alternative media in forms of newspapers, books and other forms
Once the abolitionists and other anti-Apartheid supporters got their hands on alternative media, they were able to educate themselves on the politics and laws that were being hidden from them and later used their knowledge to fight against the government Dominant Power Dynamic The dominant power set rules and guidelines that oppressed the people that were from a different race
The dominant power made sure that the majority of the people believed in their system and did not question it
In cases where people did question the government, they would get punished Dominant Narrative European government was bringing "civilization" to an "uncivilized" country
Gold discovered in Johannesburg made the "city" rich
Native South Africans were attacking the government and their laws Alternative Voices Cont. Leader and co-founder of the ANC
committed to non-violent resistance and was politically active
wanted to take action in government Nelson Mandela Steven Biko Desmond Tutu One of the most outspoken critics on the Apartheid
Religiously motivated rather than politically
Told the South African government that apartheid was contrary to the will of God and was doomed to failure ANC leader
helped organize the 'Campaign of Defiance against Unjust laws' which targeted six unjust apartheid laws was the co-founder and first president of the all-Black South African Students’ Organization (SASO);
primary aim of the organization was to raise black consciousness in South Africa through lectures and community activities.
What can we do in our community? What have we learned? Peaceful protesting can be heard better than violence
coming together on important issues can make a difference; "knowledge is power" Similarities between then and now 2012 Election Influences of the alternative voices taking a non violent approach towards change EDUCATE!