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Copy of Copy of History of Occupational Therapy
Transcript of Copy of Copy of History of Occupational Therapy
• Founder of a private mental hospital (The retreat of York)
• Played a large part in influencing a move towards more humane care in mental health.
• Looked at creative a more positive treatment for those in distress through the person's environment and practical considerations, starting in the late 1700s. William Tuke The arts and crafts movement was started in England by John Ruskin and William Morris.
Spanned from 1860's to 1930's and spread all over Europe and North America.
Both men were anti industrialization because;
it changed work from being a solace to a burden
All people should find meaning through work
Recognized the well-being potential of work • Opening of Henry Phipps Psychiatric clinic in 1913
• Hired Eleanor Clarke Slagle, developed habit training
• Meyer believed disorganised habits as a cause of the behaviour seen in schizophrenia, he indicated occupational cycles had been out of balance/unbalanced, resulting in loss of organizing and stabilizing (healthful) effects of work, play, rest and sleep. • In 1914 she resigned and returned to Chicago, where she gave lectures at the Chicago School for Civics and Philanthropy.
• In 1917, she became general superintendent of occupational therapy for all of the Illinois state hospitals. Two years later she started up the Henry B. Favrill School of Occupations
• In 1922, she established the headquarters of the American Occupational Therapy Association in New York. For the next twenty years, she served as occupational therapy director at the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene.
• The Eleanor Clarke Slagle Award of the A.O.T.A is named in her honor. •Seen as founder of social work
•Environmental and open space campaigner lead to her co-founding the national trust
•Improved life for the poor (living conditions)
•Organised creative arts, music and expeditions
•Built a club house hosted activities for children, women and elder people
•Bought a few properties which became a good investment, gathered more support and funds during her expansion – women received training to enable them to act as social workers. It was first formed in 1917 by 6 people including Eleanor Slagle.
They were dedicated to building a role for OT in the health care community and established an organization that would build the profession and serve its members.
In 1923 the organization changed its name to the American Organization of Occupational Therapy.
It contributed to creating a professional level course of study. •Head of O.T. At university Illinois at Chicago.
•Looked at Creating a model based around the psycho-social challenge faced by people with disabilities.
•Crafted the Model of Human Occupation also known as MOHO.
•What is MOHO- A number of concepts and assessment tools that seeks to explain how occupation is motivated, patterned, and performed. 1930 Dr. Casson bought Dorset House in Bristol where she established the first school of OT in the UK.
Originally the OT school was part of her residential nursing home for women with psychiatric problems where patients did activities such as dancing, gardening, basket making, sewing, woodwork etc.
Political and social climate during this time influenced the development of OT as WW2 meant there was a greater need for rehabilitation and people were beginning to recognize the health benefits associated with occupations.
OT had spread worldwide and Dorset House played an important role in that. •WFOT was inaugurated in Liverpool, UK, in 1952.
•WFOT aims to promote and develop OT around the world, specifically in countries where none exists.
•WFOT promotes OT training and education, it facilitates international exchange of information and it has an important role in maintaining good ethics, standards and practice of OT. In 1992 the Medical Rehabilitation Therapists (Registration) Board of Nigeria was formed by the Minister of Health.
Occupational Therapy was recognised an important aspect of Medical Rehabilitation. The practice was initiated by a few expatriates in early fifties at the Psychiatric hospitals in Lagos and Abeokuta, Ogun State. Later the practice spread to the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State.
Nigerians started training as Occupational Therapists in the late 1950’s and a large percentage were trained in Britain.
Princess Victoria Amu-Uwakwe can best be described as the Queen of occupational therapy. OT is a very small profession in Botswana.
In the 1960/70's churches and NGO’s opened the first schools for impaired hearing and vision
1974 the Ministry of Education opened a unit for special needs
In 1994 the revised national policy of education (RNPE) stated a greater effort should be made to cater for those with disabilities •She was influential in the field of Occupational science.
Developed frame of reference for occupational behaviour that described biopsychosocial nature of man through the occupations of work, play and self-care
•Soon became the academic discipline of occupational science Elizabeth was recognised as one of the visionary leaders and creators of occupational science.
She pioneered concepts of multidisciplinary education, integrity, respect for the wishes of people with disabilities and world view of occupation.
She was awarded numerous awards, including from the AOTA. The College of Occupational Therapists (COT) was formed in 1978. It is involved with the professional standards and educational aspects of occupational therapy, together with the development of research activity, evidence based practice and the continuing professional development of its members. The College of Occupational Therapists represents the profession on a local, national and international level.
The advisory role of the College of Occupational Therapists is crucial in influencing governmental policies and procedures affecting the practice of occupational therapy.
The law governing the BAOT and COT are: the Charities Act 2006, the Companies Act 2006 and the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992. William Tuke and John Ruskin both believed engaging in simple work tasks improved health. Octavia included Arts and Crafts in her therapeutic activities. Elizabeth organised activities, including arts and crafts as OT in her nursing home and also in Dorset House. Elizabeth received many awards from the A.O.T.A. The W.F.O.T is promoting the development of OT in other countries, such as Botswana and Nigeria. Slagle established the headquarters of the A.O.T.A Adolf hired Eleanor to direct the OT department at Henry Phipps Psychiatric Unit. The C.O.T and the A.O.T.A both have an important advisory role. Elizabeth was inspired by Mary Riley. Kielhofner provided the OT profession with research evidence to support occupation based practice. The A.O.T.A was founded to promote research in OT through financial support. Kielhofner provided evidence based practice.