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Coordination and Response

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shahirah isnin

on 15 February 2013

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Transcript of Coordination and Response

RESPONSE Response & Coordination Stimulus : A changes in the environment that can
make an organism react and cause response Response : A result of a reaction towards stimuli Type of stimuli -

(a) External stimuli : light, sound, touch, pressure, taste (b) Internal stimuli : sugar level, osmotic pressure Importance - # regulate internal environment by homeostasis # protect organisms from harm # enable organism to adjust to changes in
the environment Stimulus Receptor
(sensory organ) Integrating centre
(brain) Effector
(muscles / glands) Response The main components and pathways
involved in detecting and responding
to changes in external environment detected by afferent neurone efferent neurone Effector
- endocrine glands
in pancreas Integrating centre
( brain ) Response
- activities to decrease
high glucose level Receptors in the
hypothalamus Stimulus
- high glucose level
in blood Normal glucose level
in blood The main components and pathways involved in detecting and responding to changes in external environment rise after taking
a heavy meal a change in blood
sugar level is
detected by negative feedback Coordination Definition : The process involved in the
- detection of stimulus by receptor,
- integration of information by integrating
centre in the brain,
- actions of the effectors to produce response Involves both the nervous system and
endocrine system 3.2 Role of Human Nervous
System Functions : - receives information from receptors and
then transmits and interprets the information
- formulates appropriate responses to be sent
to the effector organ - controls and coordinates functions
throughout the body
- helps to maintain homeostasis Human Nervous
System Brain Spinal cord Cranial nerve Spinal nerve Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem Medulla
Oblongata Pons Central Nervous
System Peripheral Nervous
System structure of a brain 1. The largest brain structure in humans and accounts for about two-thirds of the brain’s mass. Cerebrum 3. Control most of our body functions, including the mysterious state of consciousness, the senses, the body’s motor skills, reasoning and language. Cerebellum 2. It is divided into two sides — the left and right hemispheres 1. Two peach-size mounds of folded tissue
located at the top of the brain stem 2. Guru of skilled, coordinated movement (e.g., returning a tennis serve or throwing a slider
down and in) and is involved in some learning pathways. Thalamus 1. It is located at the top of the brain stem. 2. Acts as a two-way relay station, sorting,
processing, and directing signals from the
spinal cord and mid-brain structures up to
the cerebrum, and, conversely, from the
cerebrum down the spinal cord to the
nervous system. Hypothalamus 1. Located at the base of the brain where signals from the brain and the body’s hormonal system interact. 2. It monitors numerous bodily functions such
as blood pressure and body temperature. 3. Controlling body weight and appetite. Brainstem 1. The part of the brain that connects to the
spinal cord. 2. Controls functions basic to the survival such
as heart rate, breathing, digesting foods, and
sleeping. 3. It is the lowest, most primitive area of
the human brain. Main function of
spinal cord 1. As a shock absorber. 2. Control and affect certain parts of the body. 3. Messages transmitting pain, movement,
temperature, touch, and vibration regarding
the skin, joints, muscles, and internal
organs are all relayed through the
spinal cord. structure of an efferent neuron Types of neurons Function of each type
of neuron 1. Sensory neurons typically have a long dendrite and short axon, and carry messages from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. 2. Motor neurons have a long axon and short dendrites and transmit messages from the central nervous system to the muscles (or to glands). 3. Interneurons are found only in the
central nervous system where they
connect neuron to neuron. The Transmission Pathway of Information Stimulus
1 3 Receptors detect the
stimulus Afferent neurone
- the receptors trigger nerve
inmpulses in afferent
neurone 2 Interneurone
- receive the impulses
from afferent neurone 4 Central nervous system
- the brain integrates and
interprets the nerve impulses
5 Efferent neurone
- carry the nerve impulses
to effector 6 7 Effectors
- contraction of muscles
to carry out response
8 Response
1. The chemicals that are used to transmit
an impulse across a synapse is called
neurotransmitter. 2. Synaptics knob contains abundant
mitochondorion to generate energy for transmission of nerve impulses. 3. The vesicles release the neurotransmitter
which will diffuse across the synapse to the
dendrite of neurone. Voluntary actions 1. Example : walking, thinking, raising hand 2. Impulses transmit from the brain to the
skeleton muscle Involuntary actions 1. Example : breathing, peristalsis, vasoconstriction, heartbeat 2. Impulses transmit from medulla
oblongata to the smooth muscle,
cardiac muscle, gland
A reflec arc diagram Diseases Related to
Nervous System 1. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain's nerve cells, or neurons, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes. 2. Parkinson's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the neurons within the brain responsible for producing the chemical dopamine become impaired or dies. Roles of hormones in humans Hormones : a chemical substance produced in body which has a specific regulatory effect on activity of certain cells or a certain organ or organs. Endocrine system : made up of endocrine glands that secrete hormones. - usually work together with nervous system and complement the nervous system 1. Some physiological processes are not directly regulated by neuron system. example : growth, menstrual cycle Glands of endocrine system 2. Hormone therapy (HT) uses female hormones, commonly estrogen and progestin and sometimes testosterone, to treat symptoms of menopause. Effect of hormonal imbalance 1. Men who have low testosterone levels can experience erectile dysfunction. 2. In women, thyroid hormone imbalances can cause menstrual irregularities, infertility, pregnancy complications. 3. Hypothyroidism is a disease in which
lower than normal thyroid hormone
levels occur. Regulation of Hormone Secretion 1. Regulated by another hormones. example : regulation of thyroxine by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 2. Regulated by nervous system. example : osmoreceptor stimulates pituitary gland to release hormone, ADH 3. Regulated by the level of certain substances. example : regulation of blood sugar level by insulin and glucagon by : nur shahirah isnin
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