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Advanced 5 Grammar 2

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G F Dowling

on 16 February 2015

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Transcript of Advanced 5 Grammar 2

Advanced Grammar 2 (A05F)
Quantifiers
Who likes shopping?
Modification of nouns
Adjective Clauses: Review and Expansion
Are you a dog person or a cat person?
Rules
1. Respect
2. Be on time
3. No Cellphone
4. No food or drink
5. Do your homework
6. Speak English as much as possible

Schedule
Midterm Exam 9th day of class
ALP's begin 14th day of class
Final exam 17th day of class
No grade changes for objectives after the 16th day
Objectives
3 speaking objectives from the units.
2 writing objectives.
(No make-ups)
How do you usually pay?
Comprehension Questions
What gives paper money it's value?
What is the most abstract type of money?
How does the transfer of e-money work?
According to the reading, what are some of advantages of cash?
What are some disadvantages of electronic money?

Objectives:
To talk about
money
using
quantifiers
with count and non-count nouns
in affirmative statements vs. questions and negative statements
in conversational and more formal styles
To identify semantic differences in pairs such as
a few / few
and
a little / little
.
Identify the grammar
...few flower vendors take checks
... getting a couple of hot dogs
... pull out a few bills

It's inconvenient to take a great deal of money...
... the trend toward... less use of cash...
Some people have little use for credit cards.
Which words mean "all"?
Which words mean a large number or amount?
In the sentence, "They have few investments", could "a few" be used with more or less the same meaning?
A few is used with count nouns. What is used with non-count nouns?
What is the non-count equivalent of "many"?
Are "a lot of" and "lot's of" about the same in meaning?
Grammar chart
Grammar time
How many...?
How much...?

Each/ every

What happens to "of"?
a couple of
plenty of

Which quantifiers can be used for count nouns only?
Non-count?
I have ___ time.
I have ___ problems.
Which words can we use?
Which is it?
little
a few
a little
few
Make two sentences of each form
I don't have___ time.
I don't have___ problems.
Do you have ___ time?
Do you have___problems?
Which words are informal?
Some or Any?
In a question, "some" has a more positive expectation whereas "any" is fairly neutral.
Write:
an affirmative statement
a negative statement
an offer
a negative question
Write your sentences on the board.

Leave spaces for your classmates to fill in.
Be the teacher
most/most of
many/many of
few/few of
all/all of
Which do we use for generalizations?
Create sentences for each
Objective
To talk about
expectations
by
modifying nouns
with
adjectives
or
other nouns
.
Why did everyone expect the American team to lose?
According to the reading, why did the Americans win?
What is the "expectation syndrome"?
What is "focal dystonia"?
What is Steven's recommendation about expectations?

Comprehension Questions
Identify the Grammar
...the men's semifinal ice hockey match
...its fantastic computer-generated scenes of strange-looking creatures
What part of speech is each underlined word?
Now replace underlined words with different word (remember to make sure they are the same part of speech).
Now create sentences similar to the "Order of Adjective Modifiers" chart.
In the third chart,
Why is is there only one sentence on the left and three on the right?
The order is fixed in one and flexible in the other.
What do you notice about the second word in the modifiers in the top row?
They are participles-
past and present
milk chocolate
chocolate milk
country home
piano player
family dog
animal party
What are other compound nouns that you know?
Kaká is a famous soccer player.
Can the word order be changed?
No
Adj.
mod.
Noun
mod.
Head
noun
Make a new sentence with the same categories.
-ed vs. -ing
state vs. cause
frighten
interest
surprise
amaze
It was an __ movie.
The viewers were __.
bore
OSAS.COM
Opinions
Size
Age or Temperature
Shape
Color
Origins, nationalities, or social classes
Materials
That is an ugly, big, old, round, brown, hand-made, wooden bucket
This is an expensive, small, new, rectangular, red, high-class, gold jewelery box.
Opinions can include qualities
Note: adjectives that don't cause or express feelings are generally between colors and origins.
Try to make the longest descriptions you can think of.
Modifiers of the same category
The ugly, mean dog
The ugly and mean dog
The beautiful but mean dog
Make sure you pause for each comma!
Compound modifiers
It's a
program
controlled by the
government
.
It's a
government
-
controlled
program.
It's a
bag
that weighs
40 pounds
.
It's a
40 pound

bag
.
Create your own
compound modifiers
use note 6
Notice: plural nouns become singular before the noun it modifies
Avoid ambiguity!
I bought a student party idea book.
Which is it?
I bought a book containing ideas for student parties.
I bought a book of ideas for parties for students.
It was a one eyed one horned flying purple people eater.
To talk about
personality
using
adjective clauses
What are the implications?
What is a dog person like? A cat person?
Comprehension Questions
Out of whose work did science of personality identification grow?
How does the reading define introvert and extrovert?
What are four categories of personality dimensions?
The reading asks,"What good is classifying people?"
The hosts have a new party game
that involves asking everyone to
...
...they developed a test,
which has been refined many times over the decades
...
This category has nothing to do with the way
that people direct their energy
.
An introvert is... a person
whose energies are activated by being alone
.
She;s the kind of person
whom others consider shy.
He... is likely to be imagining a time
when he was hiking alone in the mountains.
Sensors are practical people
who notice what is going on around them..
.
...Jack,
whose parents own a sofa company
, notices that his hosts have bought a new sofa...
The loan officer,
who makes Gary feel criticized,
is only trying to do his job.
Identify the grammar
Which are identifying clauses?
Which are non-identifying?
Notes 1 and 2
Which nouns and pronouns are modified in the example in the text?


Create your own sentences using the same pattern.
The Ings are the
people who
bought the house
Note 3
Now write sentences following the same pattern and using the same pronouns as the example in the text.
Break it down
Mr. Pitkin, whom I mentioned yesterday, is my boss.
Mr. Pitkin is my boss.
I mentioned him yesterday.
What is the object in the second sentence?
What happens when the ideas are combined?
he who
him whom
Note 4
Look at the three examples about tests.
Which do you think is most common?

The test which I took was difficult.
The test that I took was difficult.
The test I took was difficult.
Note 4
Why?
Note 5
Look at the first two examples in the book.
Break down the third into two sentences.
What happens to "whose?"
Write five pairs of sentences.
Then, combine them using "whose."
Note 6
Write sentences about your home town, native country, first home, first school, and current residence using "where" in a relative clause.
Exchange papers and ask questions.
e.g. Was the town where you grew up on the coast?
Was the town that you grew up in on the coast?
Was the town you grew up in on the coast?
Notice the prepositions
Transform five of your sentences the same way
Note 8
Identifying or Non-identifying?
My brother, who lives in Paris, is an artist.


My brother who lives in Paris is an artist.
I only have one brother. The information is extra.
I have three brothers. The one that lives in Paris is an artist. The others are teachers.
Adjective Clauses with Prepositions; Adjective phrases
To talk about
movies
using
adjective clauses with prepositions, with quantifiers, and with nouns
, and
reduce or change adjective clauses to adjective phrases
.
What is your favorite movie?
What kind of movie is it?
Do you usually like the
same kind of movies
or do you like
variety?
Comprehension questions
Why did the author not want to take his children to see
The Lord of the Ring
?
Why does the author recommend
The Return of the King
even to people who don't like fantasy?
What is the theme of the movie?
Why does the author refuse to revel the ending?
What rating does he give the movie?
I've seen quite a few fantasy films, most of which bored me silly.
...I gave my wife several good reasons why she should take the kids and not I, all of which she dismissed quickly...
The movie (and the book on which it is based) is about the struggle between good and evil.
The forces of evil, represented by the Dark Lord... must get the ring back...
Anyone interested in cinema should see this film.
The Return of the King has many prominent actors, all of whom distinguish themselves
Match the sentences to the charts in the book
What can we substitute?
Note 1
Formal or Informal?
Bill is the man to whom I spoke.
Bill is the man I spoke to.
The film to which I'm referring is
Ran
.
Ran, to which I'm referring, is good.
Identifying or not?
From which can we omit the relative pronoun?
Note 2
Which of the relative pronouns can refer both to people and things?
Which refer only to people?
Which refer only to things?
Whose
Whom
Which
The students in this class most of whom are present today are advanced.
Where do the commas go?
,
,
How could this be two sentences?
I have two ___, both of whom ____.
I have two ___, both of which____.
I have several ___, three of whom___.
I have many ___, none of whom___.
I have lots of ____, some of whom___.
I have two brothers, both of whom are living abroad.
Note 3
Very formal writing or speaking
Noun + of + which
Why is one example plural and another singular?
Notice the commas!
Write about fruit using "example(s)" and geography and weather using "occurrence(s)". Use both singular and plural.
e.g. Citrus fruits, examples of which are lemons and oranges, have been cultivated for centuries.
or
Citrus fruits, an example of which is the lemon, have been cultivated for centuries.
Notes 4 - 6
Look at the examples in the text.
Is any information lost when the adjective clause is reduced?
Which cannot be reduced?
With your team, create sentences containing adjective clauses.
The opposing team must change the sentence to one that has an adjective phrase.
e.g.
A: The woman who is wearing a red scarf is from Brazil.
B: The woman wearing the red scarf is from Brazil.
Make sure you create sentences that can be reduced
The Passive to describe situations and to report questions
Anthropology
Where do the Asu live?
What is the mane of the Asu's sacred creature?
What is the connection between rac ownership and social status?
What is the most common rac ailment?
What is the average lifespan of the rac?
Comprehension Questions
1. The territory of the Asu
is located
between Mexico and Canada.
2. On the southeast, their territory
is bordered
by the Caribbean.
3. Relatively little
is known
of the origin of this people, though they
are said
to be from somewhere in the East.
4. The cow
is regarded
as a sacred animal and is treated with great respect.
5. It
is felt
that the more racs a family has the higher its social status is.
6. Those not possessing at least one rac
are considered
to be of low social status.
7. In some large Asu cities, citizens
are surrounded
by their racs.
8. Merchants that provide rac food
are
sometimes
alleged
to be profiting excessively.
Identify the grammar
Which describe situations or states?
Which report opinions or ideas? (Can you find more in the reading?)
Which are followed by
to
phrases?
Which are followed by
that
clauses?
Which are followed by prepositional phrases?
How are
to
and
that
converted to the passive?
Which passive doesn't fit the charts?
Note 1
Which can be rewritten with a
by
phrase?
...in an active sentence?
These people are related to each other.
New Orleans in located on the Mississippi river.
Will Smith is considered an excellent actor.
Sasquatch is thought to live in the Pacific Northwest.
Our two families are related.
Note 3
When do we use stative verbs?
How do past participles function is satative passive construction?
What is the participle usually followed by?
Describe your hometown and/or country using stative passives.
Refer to Appendix 11 and create five sentences using different verbs (try to use verbs you haven't used before in the examples).
Note 4
It is
assumed
that the culture is very old.
What can we replace this verb with?
It is ____ that _____.
It is said in Machu Picchu.
that it is located
Change the examples in the text to active sentences.
Appendix. 10
Which of these words are more formal?
Which are all-purpose?
Note 5
Look at the first two sentences in the text.
Notice how they are transformed into the passive.
What is the agent in the first two examples?
What other words can we use?
Change the remaining examples into the active voice.
Can we replace the other passive verbs with
consider
?
In which can we drop the infinitive phrase after
consider
?
Rewrite the examples using regard.
Note 6
What do we use with passives to sound more formal or sound objective?
It is believed Machu Picchu is old.
that
Scan reading for active and passive sentences. Mark "A" for active and "P" for passive.
Gerunds
youtu.be/bduM60BfRSc
youtu.be/VipRlZQBFcc

What type of friends are there?
Why doesn't the author like the traditional description of friends as either true or false?
What are the author's six types of friends?
Why is Bill important to the author?
Who is Ken?

I was having difficulty finding a subject for this month's column.
I also remember learning a rhyme.
I see that my perceiving friendship in this way was pretty simplistic.
I tried taking the bus.
My brother's passion is kayaking.
We can go for months or years without contacting each other.
We enjoy just catching up on each other's activities.
It's someone who doesn't avoid telling you what you need to hear.
Other times we just like being together without saying much of anything.
Which category does each sentence fall into?
How can we change these to negative?
Make a list of hobbies and things you like to do in your free time.
How many gerunds did you use?
Now report your partner's answers using
enjoy
,
spend time
, and
practice.
Appendix 12
Make five sentences

Categorize the verbs
Note 3
Create new sentences.
Look at the examples in the text.
Appendix 13
Create five sentences
Game: Think of gerunds and your partner must create a sentence.
Note 4
Bob's bothers me.
Suzy's is really irritating.
Bill's scares me.

His is even worse!
Note 5
I met Jane in my first week of college.
This helped me throughout my college career.
Having ______ helped me _______.
I hate/dislike being____. / I hate getting___.
I like/enjoy being____. / ....getting____.
Having been ____ is one of the best/worst things that ever happened to me.
Extra practice
My friend , ____ and I...
We became friends by _____.
I remember ____together when we were younger.
When we get together we enjoy ____.
We have a common interest in _____.
His/Her passion is ___
He/She helped me when I had trouble ____.
I don't mind his/her ____.
He/She doesn't like being _____.
Full transcript