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Transcript of pneumatic structure
The word pneumatic is derived from the Greek word pneuma meaning breath of air thus these are the structure which are supported by air
pneumatic History :
* The first experiments with pneumatic structures were taken from the development of hot air balloons. At the begining of the 20 century English engineer Frank Lanchester He campaign hospitals but none were actually constructed due to the lack of proper membrane materials or appeal to clients.
* In 1922, The OASIS Theater in Paris sported a pneumatic hollow roof structure that was rolled into place when it rained
* In World War II, and after the invention of nylon, pneumatic structures began being used by the military as emergency shelters and decoys.
Its principle is the use of relatively thin membrane supported by a pressure difference .Through increasing the inside air pressure.
TYPES OF PNEUMATIC STRUCTURE
Air – supported structures :
It consist of a single membrane supported by a small internal pressure difference.
Air – inflated structure :
It is supported by pressurized air contained within inflated building element.
It is a single or double layer membrane and is made of industrial fabrics.
The shape of the envelope is a very important aspect in pneumatic structures.
Pumping Equipment :
. The pumping equipment for an air-inflated structure can be fans, blowers or compressors.
. the internal volume of the envelope is supplied with atmospheric pressure through the pumping equipment
. the pumping equipment is used in many cases to replace any air leakage in order to maintain a stabilized pressurized environment
Entrance Doors :
The most common and efficient entrance doors are the airlocks
The structures are secured on the ground using heavy weights ground anchors or attached to a foundation.
.For a bigger and wider pneumatic structure, reinforcing cables or nets are required to anchor and stabilize it.
LIGHT WEIGHT :
* The weight of the membrane roof even when it is stiffened by cables, is very small.
* Even with spans of more than 100mts, the weight of the structure does not exceed 3kg/square meter
* there is no theoretical maximum span as determined by strength, elasticity,specific weight or any other property.
* It is hardly possible to span a distance of over 36km. With a steel cables as they would fail because of their inability to sustain their own weight. But with pneumatics, such spans are quiet possible
* For a building, then the limitation is 500 feet span due to its self weight.
* pneumatic structures are safer than any other structure otherwise
* very light.
*There are warning signals while the release of return valve.
* cant be destroyed by fire quickly and totally.
* it is very safe no body can or pass through it. If an air bag is cut with a knife/ pin, a bang is produced.
Quick Erection and Dismantling :
* 1 sq.Km. Of an area can be brought down in 6 hours. And establish in less than 10 hours. The 4 hours difference is due to establishment of pegs etc.
* It is not expensive where it is used for shifting structures.
Good natural light :
* Gives good natural light
* There is a lot of flexibility in getting sun light(50%-80%)
* We can even bring the whole sun inside.
The materials that form a pneumatic structure can be divided into
Envelope materials are usually synthetic fabrics with a coating .
* Fiberglass :
Fiberglass is the most common choice for envelope material for larger.
* Polyester :
Polyester is the most common envelope material for smaller structures because of its tensile strength, durability, and cost.
The coating provides weathering and fire resistance for the envelope fabric.
* ETFE :
ETFE is a new material being used for pneumatic structures such as the Beijing National Aquatics Center. It is very energy efficient because of transparency, insulation, and UV resistance. It is also light weight (0.35kg/m2), has an estimated lifespan on 20 years, and is completely recyclable.
* Nylon :
Nylon can be used for smaller structures. Vinyl-coated nylon has more strength, durability, and stretch than polyester, but also a higher cost.
the cables and ballasts
* Steel Cables :
Steel cables are used for air-supported structures to anchor and stabilize the membrane structure. Steel wires are twisted into strands which are then twisted around a core to form the cable. The cables are attached to ballasts that provide anchoring.
* Sports and recreation :
-This type of structure is suitable for such building type
-It is often a cheaper alternative to steel supported roofs.
-Disadvantages to using a roofing system of this type include the fact that the structure must be constantly maintained and inspected .
* Military Structures :
-Pneumatic structures are commonplace in the Military.
- They often take the shape of a semi-circular tube .
-The most common uses for : - storage or for emergency medical operations.
-can be erected by one person easily.
* Other Uses :
presented by :
Architecture : James tennant baldwin
Style : Pneumatic structure
Location : Blazey town , Cornwall , UK
Completed : May 2000
Openning : 17 March 2001
Architecture : Gris co srl, Padova
Style : Pneumatic structure
Location : Farnborough, England
Openning : 2006
Customer: Bodino, Torino
Covered area: 1000 mq
MODERN TEA HOUSE
Architecture : KKAA Kengo Kuma
Style : Pneumatic structure
Location : Frankfurt, Germany
Openning : 2007
Customer: City of Frankofurt
Covered area: 32 sqm
- Ehab ibrahim ahmed
- Ahmed ossama oraiby
- Caroline sabry
- Nourhane mostafa
- Fatma elzahraa mohamed
- Mohamed wael
presented to :
Dr. Dina Nassar
Eng Marwa Kamel
Eng Ahmed Farfour