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Wells Concrete Presents Precast Concrete 101

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Wells Concrete

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of Wells Concrete Presents Precast Concrete 101

Insulated Wall Panel

Project Applications

Precast Products
Strong in compression...weak in tension.
Concrete Strength
Market Reach
& Plant Locations
Precast Concrete 101
Guaranteed Sand & Gravel Co. of Mankato purchased a small concrete drain tile and ready-mix concrete plant in Wells, MN. They re-named the company WELLS CONCRETE.
1950's - 1970's
WELLS CONCRETE expanded its production line, introducing double tees, insulated sandwich wall panels, short span quad tee bridge members, and double tee bridge members
WELLS CONCRETE developed a unique vapor barrier system and a high quality finishing process to fulfill the stringent requirements of the food processing industry, becoming a regional leader in the precast concrete construction of
food processing facilities
WELLS CONCRETE added a separate manufacturing facility to produce architectural precast concrete equipped with specialized batching and forming capabilities.
WELLS CONCRETE acquired Concrete Inc. in Grand Forks, ND.
WELLS CONCRETE constructed a state-of-the-art architectural finishing facility to streamline the finishing of architectural panels.
WELLS CONCRETE opened a new 165,000 square foot production facility in Albany, MN. In addition to producing Wells Concrete's existing line of architectural and structural products, this facility is equipped to produce 12-foot wide double tees, hollow-core plank, and insulated hollow-core wall panels.
Wells, MN Plant
Grand Forks, ND Plant
Albany, MN Plant
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to constitute approval, sponsorship or endorsement by the AIA of any method, product, service, enterprise or organization. The statements expressed by speakers, panelists, and other participants reflect their own views and do not necessarily reflect the views or positions of The American Institute of Architects or of AIA components, or those of their respective officers, directors, members, employees, or other organizations, groups or individuals associated with them. Questions related to specific products, publications, and services may be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Learning Objectives
Define what precast/prestressed concrete is
Discuss the advantages and long-term benefits of precast/prestressed concrete
Describe how precast concrete contributes to design versatility, energy efficiency, and long-term building performance
Explain the concept of resiliency and how precast/prestressed concrete design incorporates it to provide multi-hazard protection
Discuss architectural and structural precast solutions for common design challenges
Concrete Basics
What is Concrete?
"An artificial stone-like material used for various building purposes"
A composite material made from several readily available elements including aggregates (sand & rock), sand, water, and cement
Interesting Facts:
Concrete is used more than any other man-mad material in the world.
Average concrete strength is about 3,000 psi (lbs/square inch). Some concrete can reach strengths over 20,000 psi
A versatile material that can easily be mixed to meet a variety of special needs and form to virtually any shape
The concrete industry is worth over $37 billion, and it employes more than 2 million employees in the United States.
Approximately 10 billion tons of concrete are produced every year.
The Pantheon, Roma

Completed in 126 AD, holds the record for the
largest unreinforced concrete dome ever built.
Typical Concrete Mix Design
What is Cement?
A fine powder produced by grinding CLINKER and adding Calcium Sulfate (Gypsum)
Clinker is made by heating a homogeneous mixture of raw materials to a temperature of 2,700°F in a kiln being slowly rotated. (A complex set of reactions take place.)
A Major raw material in Clinker is limestone, mixed with clay, shale, iron ore, and bauxite.
Calcium Sulfate (Gypsum) is added to the Clinker and the mixture is finely ground to form the finished cement powder. (One billion particles per pound of cement.)
Add Mixtures
Supplemental Cementitious Materials
Fly Ash - Waste from Coal Burning Power Plants
Slag - Waste from Steel Mills
Silica Fume - Waste from Aluminum Processing
Natural Pozzolans - Volcanic Ash
100% recyclable materials
Reduces cost
Improve durability and workability
Increases strength
Reduces heat
Other Chemical Additives
Accelerators - Speeds up set time
Retarders - Slows hydration
Water Reducing Agents - Increases strength
Air Entrainment - Exposure to freeze-thaw
Super Plasticizers - High flow
Corrosion Inhibitor - Where salt is present
Shrinkage Reducers - Prevents cracking
Color Additives
The tension strength of concrete is only 10% of its compression strength
Adding reinforcing gives concrete addition strength, especially in tension and shear.
Concrete Reinforcing
Fiber Reinforcing
Steel Rebar
Weld Wire Fabric
Prestressed Wire Strand
Prestressed Strand:
Seven-wire strand stressed
to about 30,000 lbs.
Prestressing Set-up
Bonded Prestressed Seven-wire Strand
Upward force effect
due to prestressing
Advantages of Prestressing Concrete
High span-to-depth ratio:
Larger spans possible with prestressing
Provides open spaces, or clear spans
Increases span-to-depth ratio by about 30% over non-prestressed
Reduces cracking:
Increases the durability of concrete
More protection for reinforcing
Economical design:
Fewer columns
Reduced foundations
Shallow sections
Research & Development
Load testing double tees
What is Precast Concrete?
Concrete elements cast at another location other than its final position.
Concrete is cast in a controlled environment.
Production typically off-site and shipped to a job site.
Advantages of Precast Concrete
Shortens construction schedule:

Generally 1/2 the schedule of other types of construction
All weather construction:
Bad weather does not affect quality.
Plant-controlled conditions:
Provides high quality concrete.
Prestressed concrete:
Providing shallow sections, longer spans, and controlled cracking.
Fire resistant:
Concrete is inherently fire resistant.
Many finishing & color options:
Colored concrete & veneers.
Long spans:

Up to 110' roof spans and 60' high wall panels.
Interior of wall panels provide a durable finish suitable for a finished surface.
Sound resistant:
Floors STC +50, and IIC +28.
Flexibility in design:
Long spans and unusual shapes are possible with precast.
A safe & secure wall and roof systems for schools, 911 communication buildings, criminal justice facilities, storm shelters, and data centers.
Energy efficient:
Concrete stores and releases energy, reducing temperature swings.
Precast concrete is 100% recyclable.
Strand, rebar & plates are produced from 80-90% recycled material.
Ingredients are mostly local & readily available.
The land required to extract aggregates is only a fraction required for harvesting forest lumber.
Cement is the only energy intensive ingredient.
Longer life cycles than other building materials.
Hollow core plank
Double Tees floors/roof
Spandrel panels
Insulated wall panels
Architectural precast veneer
Precast stairs
Precast truss girders
Precast Architectural Finishes
Water Wash
Acid Etch
Thin Brick Veneer
Form Liner
Veneer (Granite or Stone)
Rib or Rake
As Cast
Acid Etch
McNeilus Building - Dodge Center, MN
Water Wash
TRIA Orthopedic Center - Bloomington, MN
Thin Brick
Municipal Parking Structure - Ramsey, MN
West Lake Retail - Wayzata, MN
Form Liner
Fire Station - Rib Mountain, WI
Fire Station - Amery, WI
Ivy Hotel - Minneapolis, MN
Rake Finish
Granite Veneer
As-Cast Finish with Color Additive
Applying Chemical Retarder
Power Washing
Applying Acid Etch Finish
Applying the Sandblast Finish
Standard Thin Brick Units
Thin Brick
Limestone Veneer In Production
Globe University - Madison, WI
Kent Building - Lakeville, MN
Insulation Types
& Connectors


Insulation Types for Sandwich Panels
Expanded Polystyrene (White Board)
R 4 per inch
Extruded Polystyrene (Blue Board)
R 5 per inch
Polyisocyanurate with facing on both sides
R 6.5 per inch
Wythe Connectors for Insulated Precast Panels
Wells Concrete Overview
The Making of Portland Cement
Cement Types:
TYP 1: General Purpose (no sulfate)
TYP 2: Sulfate Resistance (N. Dakota)
TYP 3: High Early Strength (fine)
TYP 4: Low Heat
TYP 5: Extreme Sulfate Resistance
Footing for 400'
Double Tee Bed
Welding steam pips
Maple Grove, MN Plant
Acid Etch
Combination: Acid Etch / Sand Blast
Eden Baptist Church - Savage, MN
Combination: Acid Etch / Sandblast / Thin Brick
St. Cloud Orthopedics - Sartell, MN
Thin Brick
OSI - Medina, MN
Thin Brick
Form Liner
Erik Ramstad Middle School - Minot, ND
Form Liner
Globe University - Moorhead, MN
Byerly's - Edina, MN
Whole Foods - Edina, MN
Lehman's Garage - Minneapolis, MN
Vet's Home - Minneapolis, MN
Brothers Market - Parkersburg, IA
NCEES Registered Program

PCI has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Program (RCEP) of the National Council of Examiners for Engineers & Surveyors (NCEES). Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to RCEP. A certificate of completion will be issued to each participant. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by NCEES or RCEP.

Concrete Basics
Concrete Strength
Advantages of Precast Concrete
Precast Products
Architectural Finishes
Insulation Types & Connectors
Insulated Wall Panel Production
Precast Installation
ER Post Precast Truss
Project Applications
Columns / Beam (for Hollowcore & Double Tee)
Double Tee Floor & Roof Decks
Insulated Architectural Wall Panel
Insulated Wall Panels
Double Tee Wall Panels
Spandrel Panels
Precast Stairs
Truss Girder
After attending this program you should be able to:
Wells Concrete:
Who we are
We provide architectural and structural precast products for commercial construction projects across the upper Midwest.

Our superior products lead the industry in quality and client satisfaction through the collaboration of experienced team
members and strong relationships with project partners.

We provide a full suite of products including columns, beams,
double tee roof and wall panels, insulated architectural wall
panels, hollow core plank, spandrel panels, stairs, and stadia
Wells Concrete History
Wells Concrete:
What we do
Design Drawings
Production Facility
Installation Crew
PCI Certification
Quality Assurance - An integrated and ongoing system of knowledge, programs, activities, people, inspections, tests, documentation, and assessment with the sole purpose of making sure that the intended design requirements are met.
Quality Control - The operational activites used to fulfill requirements of quality (e.g. testing, documentation
Certification - A program to check the QA program.
Certification helps ensure that essential components of a QA system are:
Functioning properly
PCI Certification
Certification assures owners, specifiers, and designers that products and systems are:
Manufactured by companies that subscribe to nationally accepted
Have comprehensive internal quality systems in place
Are audited to ensure compliance
PCI Erector Certification
Benefits of PCI Certification
Demands quality standards to the process of erecting the finished precast concrete products in the field
Provides assurance that the high-quality precast concrete components produced by a PCI-Certified Plant are erected to the exacting standards expected by owners, developers, architects, contractors, and the precast concrete structures industry as a whole
Complete program
Pre-qualified bidders
Total Lower Cost
Checked to specifications
Clearly identified manufacturer capabilities
Proven and widely accepted
, becomes as-built
Integrated with and an ongoing part of the Precast Concrete Structures industry's
Body of Knowledge
Concrete weighs an average of 3,800-4,000 lbs/yd3
Concrete is the 2nd most consumed substance in the world - behind water.
Concrete can last for thousands of years. The oldest known man-made concrete mix dates back to around 500 BC.
Thomas Edison was the first to contract and live in a precast concrete home.
Concrete is the most natural-disaster proof building material in the world.
Concrete will last longer than any other building material
Over 70% of the world's population lives in a structure that contains concrete.
Concrete gets stronger as it gets older!
What is Cement?
The Three Gorges Damn, China
The world's largest concrete structure, consuming 35 cubic yards of concrete! Hoover Damn consumed 4.5 million cubic yards.

is a reinforcing method for overcoming the concrete's natural weakness in tension
component is created by locking steel strand tight between two fixed abutments.
The individual strands are stressed with hydraulic jacks to achieve the design specified tension levels.
Prestressing Process
Once the concrete is cured, the strand force is released from the abutments. This causes the steel strands to try to return to their original length creating 'camber' at the bottom of the component.
Prestressing Process
The camber creates an upward force on the concrete component that helps offset the loading force applied to the other side.
Advantages of
Precast Concrete

Aesthetic versatility (color, form, and texture)
Design versatility (structural applications, load points, open spans, etc.)
Adaptable use and reuse
Structure durability
Multi-hazard protection
Life safety and health
No mold
Fast enclosure
Sound insulation
Passive fire protection
Impact Testing
Blast Testing
Seismic Testing
Environmental Impact
What is the environmental impact from using precast concrete relative to other systems?
Environmental Impact - LCA
PCI conducted a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)
ISO 14040 & 14044
Third-party verified
Baseline Building
Five story, commercial office
130-person occupancy
IBC (2006) & ASHRAE 90.1 (2007)
Window-to-wall-ratio: 0.40
Climate Zones: Miami, Memphis, Denver, Phoenix
LCA - Systems Matrix
Three structural systems
Cast in place
Precast concrete
Five enclosure systems
Curtain wall
Brick and steel stud
Precast concrete
Insulated precast concrete
Insulated prcast concrete with thin-brick
Environmental Impact - LCA
Use stage (operating energy) has the greatest environmental impact for any structure/enclosure combination (about 96%)
The COV among structure/enclosure combination for a given climate zone was 2% or less
Precast concrete systems do NOT impose additional environmental burden relative to the systems studied
Polar Fab - Bloomington, MN
Water Wash & Sand Blast
Acid Etch & Sandblast
Combination: Acid Etch / Sandblast / Thin Brick
Samaritan Bethany - Rochester, MN
Thin Brick
Coon Rapids Ice Arena - Coon Rapids, MN
Thin Brick
Thin Brick
Fire Station - Staughton, WI
Thin Brick
Globe University - Woodbury, MN
Combination: Thin Brick / Form Liner
Jackson Combined Facility - Jackson, MN
Form Liner
Photo Etched Form Liner
Form Liner
Form Liner
Form Liner
Blue Earth County Justice - Mankato, MN
CWC Building - Mankato, MN
Municipal Parking Structure - Ramsey, MN
Limestone Veneer
Ivy Hotel - Minneapolis, MN
Precast Sample Garden
Precast Sample Garden
Precast Sample Library
Other materials also available
Steel Connector
Expanded Metal Mesh
Site efficiency
Energy and Operational efficiency
Thermally efficient
Reduce life-cycle costs
Does not require painting
Fewer joints
UV and pest resistant
Risk Reduction
Reduce trades, detailing, joints
Design assist
Enclosure Systems
Thermally efficient enclosures provide:
Protection against moisture
Barrier Wall
Enclosure Systems
Thermally efficient enclosures provide:
Protection against moisture
Continuous insulation, air and vapor barriers
Reduce Thermal Bridges
Thermal Mass
Absorbs outside and inside heat and slowly releases
Thermal mass effect delays the onset of peak heating or cooling loads
Thermal mass effect may reduce peak demand/energy consumption and enable downsized HVAC systems
Reduces indoor temperature fluctuation to improve occupant comfort
Thermal mass effect varies by climate
Higher Ground - Minneapolis, MN
Samaritan Bethany - Rochester, MN
Samaritan Bethany - Ready, Set, Go!
Samaritan Bethany
& Recreation
& Civil
& Retail
Advanced Formliner - Sparta, WI
Bell Office Tower I - Maple Grove, MN
Bell Office Tower II - Maple Grove, MN
Harley-Davidson - Farbault, MN
Home of Economy - Minot, ND
Lock Up Storage - Bloomington, MN
Metropolitan Ford - Eden Prairie, MN
MoZaic - Minneapolis, MN
Power Fuels - Watford City, ND
Richfield Honda - Richfield, MN
Sonny Hanson Shop - Williston, ND
Target Store - Waconia, MN
WSC Train ND Training Center - Williston, ND
Erik Ramstad Middle School - Minot, ND
Fort Peck Community College - Polar, MT
Jamestown High School - Jamestown, ND
Lourdes High School - Rochester, MN
Nova Academy - St. Paul, MN
Red River High School Performance Hall - Minot, ND
Sunrise Elementary School - Bismarck, ND
United Tribes Technical College - Minot, ND
United South Central - Wells, MN
Bieleberg Sports - Woodbury, MN
Jack Trice Stadium - Ames, IA
U.S. Bank Stadium - Minneapolis, MN
Williston Area Rec Center - Williston, ND
Williston Area Rec Center - Williston, ND
4MarQ - Minneapolis, MN
Higher Ground - Minneapolis, MN
Radisson Blu - Bloomington, MN
Samaritan Bethany - Rochester, MN
Trinity Health - Williston, ND
Trinity Health - Williston, ND
UND Center for Family Medicine - Bismarck, ND
University of North Dakota Ramps - Grand Forks, ND
Chanhassen Transit Station - Chanhassen, MN
Jackson Combined Facility - Jackson, MN
Mitchel County Courthouse - Osage, IA
Shakopee Public Works - Shakopee, MN
West Fargo Fire Station - West Fargo, ND
Worthington Fire Station - Worthington, MN
Precast Concrete Structures
Integrate and optimize ALL relevant attributes
Focus on long-term performance & reducing life cycle costs
Are built sustainable and also resiliently
Precast Concrete Materials
Are versatile, efficient and resilient
Provide long-term performance
Precast concrete is versatile
Offers a virtually endless array of colors, finishes and textures make it easy to achieve your aesthetic goals efficiently
Finishes can be combined to reduce time, costs and risk
Can be used as the structural and enclosure system simultaneously to save time, materials and costs
Can be recycled and reused, making it sustainable
Facilitates easier adaptation of a structure's use to improv service life
Precast concrete is efficient
Accelerates construction, allows quicker enclosure & project completion
Allows for a smaller site footprint, which minimizes negative effects to a project ste and the environment
Combines continuous insulation, air and vapor barriers into one efficient system, optimizing teh enclosure & reducing maintenance
Improves thermal efficiency by as much as 30%, reducing operational costs and energy use
Reduces overall life cycle costs, saving money
Requires less trades, coordination, and detailing, reducing risks and costs
Provides a high degree of quality - as-designed becomes as-built
Precast concrete is resilient
Is extremely durable, can provide a 100 year service life
Can provide multi-hazard protection (e.g. stroms, earthquakes, terrorist attacks, etc.) by protecing occupants & reducing costs of rebuilding
Provides inherent passive fire protection, protecting occupants & reducing costs of rebuilding
Improves occupant comfort and safety, protecing occupants & improvng productivity
no VOCs
no mold
excellent sound insulation
less temperature fluctuation & more occupant comfort
Precast concrete is a high performance material that integrates easily with other systems, and inherently provides the versatility efficiency, and resiliency needed to meet the multi-hazard requirements and long-term demands of high performance structures.
Thank you!
Since 1951
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