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Nutritional Requirements During Pregnancy

Health Promotion group 4
by

Ciwen Wang

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Nutritional Requirements During Pregnancy

Target Group: Expecting mothers between the age of 17-35 during any stage of pregnancy, and women hoping to become pregnant Nutritional Requirements During Pregnancy 1st Trimester

The caloric intake for a expecting mother on the 2nd trimester only increases by 350-500 calories more than the woman’s “normal” caloric intake.
Before adding calories, it should be discussed with their Health Care Provider
The Health Care Provider will make the proposed calculation based on:
the woman’s age
regular weight
height
number of expecting babies Objectives Healthy People 2020 state that the well-being of the expecting mother and infant “determines the health of the next generation and can help predict future public health challenges for families, communities, and the health care system." To educate pregnant women, or women hoping to become pregnant, regarding daily nutritional calorie requirements throughout each trimester.
To inform pregnant women, or women hoping to become pregnant, of the essential vitamins and minerals necessary for optimal health throughout each trimester; and illustrate various fetal abnormalities/conditions that can result if there is a vitamin or nutrient deficit. Get the Facts:
During pregnancy, your basal metabolic rate (BMR, or the number of calories you use each day) will increase, and expecting moms need more calories to compensate for the extra work required for fetal growth.
During the first trimester, most women typically don't need to increase their daily intake of calories (i.e., 1,800 to 2,000 calories) unless they started their pregnancy underweight.
If extra calories aren't consumed in the first trimester, you should still make balanced nutrition part of your daily wellness plan. (MediResource Clinical Team)
Actions
Choose healthy foods to provide calories versus high-fat or high-sugar options.
For example, if you like sweet snacks and beverages, remember that fresh and dried fruits, and fruit juice concentrates, are sweet but also contain important vitamins and nutrients (unlike some other high-sugar snacks). Important nutrients for you and your baby Since folic acid is essential in prevention of specific fetal abnormalities from the point of conception, women who are interested in becoming pregnant should discuss taking extra amounts of folic acid with their physician. (MediResource Clinical Team)
Choosing foods from each food group will help you meet your distinctive nutritional needs.
It is imperative to eat on a regular basis and enjoy nutritious snacks. You should try to eat:
Grains: 6 ounces per day
Vegetables: 2½ cups per day
Fruits: 2 cups per day
Dairy: 3 cups per day
Protein foods: 5½ ounces per day
including 8 to 12 ounces of seafood per week
Oils: 6 tsp per day Recommendations Get the Facts: 2nd Trimester 3rd Trimester Recommendations Protein: It is an essential component to the building blocks of a healthy baby & the expecting mother should aim for:
3 servings of protein a day, which is equal to 75 grams.
Cheese, meats, eggs, peanuts, soy and other whole grains contain all the amino acids to satisfy the protein intake for a day.
Carbs: The expecting mother should focus on whole grains to satisfy the carbs during this stage. (Refined carbs should be avoided) Whole Grain options are:
whole corn
whole rice
rye, barley, and quinoa
Dried peas and beans

Fats: No more than 30% of the calories should come from fats. However, Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats in an expectant mother’s diet. These kind of fats are found in fish and some legumes, like soy. Foods to avoid Foods that contain “empty calories” such as, foods with added sugars like sodas, juices from concentrated ingredients, many desserts, candy, etc.
Also avoid foods high in fat like fried foods, cheese, whole milk and fatty meats. Risks Factors Lack of folic acid can cause deformities in the spine of the baby such as spina bifida.
Insufficient Vitamin C can slow the regeneration of tissue in the baby, such as formation of cartilage, and muscle.
Lack of iron can cause ineffective blood supply to the baby as well as the mother. Get the Facts:
During the third trimester the average female only needs to increase the amount of calories she consumes by 500 calories a day.
Again, this should be determined by the physician to assure it's appropriate for the mothers height and weight. Risks Recommendations & Actions References MediResource Clinical Team. Health.LSJ.Com. Ed. BScPhm Jennifer Ahn. n.d. 19 February 2013. <http://health.lsj.com/healthfeature/848_0_0_0_0_0/How_many_extra_calories_do_I_need_while_pregnant_(Eating_for_Two_-_Nutrition_During_Pregnancy)_.aspx>
http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/healthandlifestyle/under-nutrition-before-and-during-pregnancy/328#C12
http://www.livestrong.com/article/441758-how-many-calories-should-you-eat-when-youre-pregnant-by-trimester/
http://www.enfamil.com/app/iwp/enf10/content.do?dm=enf&id=/Consumer_Home3/Prenatal3/Prenatal_Articles/3rdTrimester&iwpst=B2C&ls=0&csred=1&r=3538524804
http://life.seven-seas.com/nutritional-strategies-in-the-third-trimester#axzz2L7lY3QMG
http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/eating-well/week-14/spotlight-nutrients.aspx# http://www.choosemyplate.gov/pregnancy-breastfeeding/pregnancy-nutritional-needs.html
http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/eating-well/week-14/spotlight-nutrients.aspx#
http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/LHI/micHealth.aspx http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/healthandlifestyle/under-nutrition-before-and-during-pregnancy/328#C12 HP 2020 indicates that each year, 12% of infants are born preterm & 8.2% are born with low birth weight. Preterm birth and low birth weight can lead to devastating and lifelong disabilities for children such as:
visual and hearing impairments
developmental delays
behavioral and emotional problems In addition avoid alcoholic drinks, and all of these include, wine, beer, liquor, mixed drinks and malt beverages.
Avoid taking more supplements than the required dosage established by your doctor; doing so may cause more harm than good to you and your baby.
Limit white (albacore) tuna to no more than 6 ounces per week.
60% calories from carbohydrates
25-30% of calories should come from fat
12-2-% of calories should come from proteins
Foods that are high in protein, calcium, vitamin C, whole grains, iron-rich foods, and plenty of fruits and vegetables.
Nutrients need during the third trimester are:
Calcium 1000 mg daily
Vitamin B6
Iron
Folic acid
Omega 3 fatty acids and zinc
At least 10 cups of water a day Microcephaly: this is caused because of inadequate nutrition during pregnancy or due to substance abuse. It is a condition in where the baby's head does not grow properly causing the head to be smaller than normal and results in improper brain development, which causes the baby to have cognitive delays and neurological problems. This can also cause dwarfism, facial deformities, and seizures.
Intrauterine growth retardation IUGR; increases the risk of dying before or around the time of birth by 8 times, and those who survive tend to have health problems later in life, this can be caused by the mother having elevated blood pressure, or because of inadequate nutrition.
Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity are all long term risk factors for the baby associated with poor nutrition during pregnancy. Studies have shown that babies that are born underweight have a higher risk of developing diabetes compared to those who are born at a normal weight. Specifically in the third trimester which is associated with complications later in life like glucose metabolism.
Malnutrition and inadequate essential nutrients can cause fetal abnormalities and illness for the expecting mother. (MediResource Clinical Team) Risk Factors:
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