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Teaching Vocabulary using Instructional Strategies

This presentation highlights five different instructional strategies that can be used to teach vocabulary in the content areas.

Megan Scherber

on 18 July 2014

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Transcript of Teaching Vocabulary using Instructional Strategies

Teaching Vocabulary using Instructional Strategies
Demonstration Video on Semantic Mapping
How Semantic Mapping can be used across disciplines in the classroom:
Demonstration Video on Pre-Teaching Vocabulary
This teacher introduces the vocabulary context behind her lesson before beginning the lesson, therefore she is pre-teaching vocabulary. She uses a vocabulary chart to activate the students prior knowledge.
Learning Vocabulary in the Content Areas
Academic vocabulary:
Words that describe knowledge and processes, specific to learning in the content areas.

Instructional Strategy:
Semantic Mapping
Semantic mapping can be used to create a Concept of Definition Map in order to build a multidimensional meaning of a word. The map is made up of lines and geometric shapes, showing relationships between concepts and sub-concepts. Three components are included in these maps when looking at a vocabulary term. These components are category, properties, and illustrations. (Miller, 2011, p.15).
Instructional Strategy:
Pre-Teaching Vocabulary
Pre-teaching vocabulary means making students aware of important concepts or words before a lesson or before they begin reading a text. Pre-teaching places a focus on words that may have multiple meanings.
Internet Resources for Pre-Teaching Vocabulary
1) Vocabulary University. (2007). 6th Grade Math Vocabulary Word List.
Tennessee Academic Vocabulary
. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from http://www.myvocabulary.com/word-list/tennessee-academic-vocabulary-6th-grade-math-vocabulary/.
Internet Resources for Semantic Mapping
1) Zorfass, J, & Gray, T. (2014). Connecting Word Meanings Through Semantic Mapping.
Reading Rockets.
Retrieved July 10, 2014, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/connecting-word-meanings-through-semantic-mapping.
Instructional Strategy:
Vocabulary Rating Guide
Internet Resources for Vocabulary Rating Guides
Instructional Strategy:
Demonstration Video using a Rating Guide for Vocabulary
Internet Resources for List-Group-Label
Demonstration Video using List-Group-Label
Instructional Strategy: Contextual Redefinition
Internet Resources for Contextual Redefinition
Demonstration Video on Contextual Redefinition
Created by Megan Scherber for
EEC 428 with Dr. Piowlski

2 types of academic vocabulary:
Content-specific academic vocabulary:
Words associated with a particular discipline such as mathematics, history, reading, or science. Ex: Finding the mean, median, or mode in math.
Content-general academic vocabulary:
Words used across disciplines. Ex: explain, describe, reflect, or analyze.
Other variations to semantic mapping include:
-The Frayer Method: including examples and non-examples to the definition
-Visual association chart: student defines the word and draws an image to help them remember
-Vocabulary Note Card: 4 quadrants- definition,
properties, examples, and non-examples.
(Miller, 2011, p.16).
What is it?
What's it like?
What are some examples?
Why use instructional strategies for teaching content vocabulary?
"The truth is, and the research shows, students need multiple and various exposures to a word before they fully understand that word and can apply it." (Alber, 2014, para.4).
"Vocabulary is the best single indicator of intellectual ability and an accurate predictor of success at school. -- W.B. Elley" (Alber, 2014, para. 28).
Semantic Mapping is supported by Marzano's
research-based six step process to direct vocabulary instruction:
The six steps of the vocabulary instruction process are:

1. Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term.
2. Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words.
3. Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term or phrase.
4. Engage students in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their vocabulary notebooks.
5. Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another.
6. Involve students in games that allow them to play with terms. (Marzano, 2013, para.1).
This article provided by Reading Rockets explains how semantic mapping aligns with the Common Core State Standards, as well as provides educators with instruction on how to teach students using semantic maps. Several technology resources are mentioned that can be used to create semantic maps. An example of a semantic lesson plan, and blank semantic maps are provided as resources.
2) Power Up What Works. (2014). Semantic Mapping.
Power Up What Works.
Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://powerupwhatworks.org/strategy-guide/semantic-mapping.
This website includes an introductory presentation on semantic mapping strategies for educators. This presentation is created with evidence based research, explaining why semantic mapping is beneficial for students. The presentation provides ideas for activities to be done with semantic mapping.
Webspiration classroom is an online template designed for teachers and students in grades 5-12. It can be used for creating semantic maps. This interactive template can be used by a classroom teacher to create a map together as a class when working with new vocabulary words.
3) Inspiration Software Inc. (2014). Webspriation Classroom.
. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.mywebspiration.com/.
This interactive website suggested by Reading Rockets, allows teachers to visually represent concepts through semantic mapping. The maps can be used to describe a process, as well as grow ideas.
4) Bubbl.us. (2014). Brainstorming Made Simple.
. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from https://bubbl.us/.

This is a fun game that can be used when implementing semantic mapping in the classroom. For each roll of the dice, the student can add on to his or her semantic map with more detail. A game like this makes creating a semantic map more exciting for the students.
5) Bainbridge, Christina. (2014). Vocabulary Rock and Roll.
Teacher's Notebook
. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.teachersnotebook.com/product/Christina%20Bainbridge/vocabulary-rock-and-roll.
"Research suggests that pre-teaching vocabulary can significantly improve comprehension of passages that contain target words. Additionally it can lead to an increase in the use of these terms in writing" (Miller, 2011, p.19).
"Building full concept knowledge of vocabulary is critical to content area proficiency and literacy development" (Miller, 2011, p.19).
How pre-teaching vocabulary is implemented in the classroom:
1) Choose terms essential to understanding the text or lesson being taught.
2) Pronounce words and have students repeat.
3) Provide an explanation of the word with a synonym.
4) Show a visual image of the word.
5) Check students for understanding of the word through formative assessment.
6) Have students complete a form of a Pre-Teaching Vocabulary Chart to be used as a reference.
(Miller, 2011, p.19)
"Using dictionary definitions to teach vocabulary is usually ineffective" (Marzano, 2014, para.6).
This website provides educators with academic vocabulary lists in several content areas including math, science, history, language arts, fine arts, health, and physical education. It highlights words that are essential to understanding the content of each subject. These word lists can be used for pre-teaching vocabulary in the classroom.
This article gives advice to educators on selecting vocabulary to pre-teach to students and the most effective ways to go about doing so based on research. It provides resources and websites that contain effective and engaging vocabulary activities as well.
2) Alber, R. (2014). Doing It Differently: Tips for Teaching Vocabulary.
. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/vocabulary-instruction-teaching-tips-rebecca-alber.
3) Brummitt-Yale, J. (2012). Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary.
K12 Reader.
Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.k12reader.com/effective-strategies-for-teaching-vocabulary/.
This article suggests effective strategies for pre-teaching vocabulary by using the keyword method and word maps. While discussing the importance of pre-teaching vocabulary as an instructional strategy, it also covers strategies that can be used while reading. This website includes graphic organizer templates as well, including a KWL chart that can be used with vocabulary words.
4) Griffin, S, & Appel, K. (2009). Vocabulary Activities.
Reading Resource
. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.readingresource.net/vocabularyactivities.html.
These vocabulary activities provide several ideas that can be implemented in a classroom and used as a pre-teaching strategy throughout disciplines. Printable downloads and resources are provided. Although it is more geared towards child vocabulary development, several of the ideas can be differentiated to a middle school level. Ideas include word walls, word posters, word grids, connection templates, and synonym and antonym posters.
5) West Virginia Department of Education. (2014). Vocabulary Graphic Organizers.
West Virginia Department of Education.
Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/VocabularyGraphicOrganizers.html.
Pre-teaching vocabulary uses graphic organizers to introduce essential words. This website provides links to a handful of graphic organizers including rating scales, Frayer model, word detectives, vocabulary clusters, and more. These are forms of Pre-Teaching Vocabulary Charts that can be used with instruction.
A Vocabulary Rating Guide is used to have students rank their knowledge of each new vocabulary word before, during, and after reading or a lesson. During this process students are monitoring their awareness of each word.
"Studies document the effectiveness of teaching students to monitor their own vocabulary growth. Word consciousness is one of the characteristics of students with strong vocabularies" (Miller, 2011, p.23).
How a Vocabulary Rating Guide is implemented in the classroom:
1) Provide students with a list of essential vocabulary words.

2) Read aloud the new vocabulary words and have students repeat.

3) Use each word in a sentence for the students, but don't give the definition.

4) Have students rate the word before reading or before the lesson using some type of scale to monitor progress.
Ex: 1- Don't recognize the word and never heard it
2- Recognize the word, but don't know what it means
3- Have a basic understanding of the word
4-Understand the word and could teach it to others
Ex: Red light: Low level of knowledge with word
Yellow light: Some level of knowledge with word
Green light: High level of knowledge with word

5) Partner up students to discover more information about each word. Partners should attempt to come up with a definition and a synonym for each word using resources available.

6) Share as a class what students have discovered.

7) Students should use the Rating Guide throughout the lesson or reading to review word meaning.

8) After the lesson or reading, have students complete a new copy of the Rating Guide with the same vocabulary words to see if they've developed a stronger understanding.

9) Use a type of formative assessment to see growth.
(Miller, 2011, p.23-24).
1) The National Behaviour Support Service. (ND). Vocabulary/ Knowledge Rating.
Comprehension Strategy- Vocabulary Rating
. Retrieved July 11, 2014 from http://education.ky.gov/curriculum/lit/Documents/kclm/vocabulary_rating_comprehension_strategy_teaching%20tools.pdf.
This PDF contains research on the purpose of vocabulary rating, as well as detailed steps on how to implement a vocabulary rating guide in the classroom. The PDF gives several examples of vocabulary guides across various disciplines. All of the vocabulary rating guides provided can be used with a variety of ages. Marzano's six steps to effective vocabulary instruction are also included in this PDF.
2) Dr. Feldman, K, & Dr. Kinsella, K. (ND). Strategy: Teaching Vocabulary Rating.
Prentice Hall eTeach.
Retrieved July 11, 2014 from http://www.phschool.com/eteach/language_arts/2002_10/essay.html.
This website, published by Pearson Education Inc., provides educators with the benefits of student self-evaluation using vocabulary rating guides before reading or a lesson. It lists all the steps to using vocabulary rating guides in the classroom, as well as example PDFs that can downloaded. Tips for using these guides in mixed-ability classrooms are also highlighted on this website.
3) Dewar, M. (2008). Strategies to Teach Vocabulary in the Content Areas.
Adolescent Literacy In Perspective.
Retrieved July 11, 2014 from http://ohiorc.org/orc_documents/ORC/Adlit/InPerspective/2008-10/in_perspective_2008-10.pdf.
This PDF discusses the research behind vocabulary for content-area learning. It specifically highlights vocabulary anticipation guides, as well as knowledge rating charts and why they are useful strategies.
4) Sedita, J. (2005). Effective Vocabulary Instruction.
Insights on Learning Disabilities.
Retrieved Jully 11, 2014 from http://www.keystoliteracy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/effective-vocabulary-instruction.pdf.
This PDF contains research behind vocabulary instruction and an overview of vocabulary instruction strategies. It provides an example of a student knowledge rating checklist and discusses the importance of promoting "word consciousness" through these vocabulary rating guides.

5) San Diego County Office of Education. (2005). Rating Vocabulary.
Retrieved July 11, 2014 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/74515957/Rating-Vocabulary.
This is an example of a lesson plan using a vocabulary rating guide for mathematics vocabulary. There is also a printable rating vocabulary sheet that can be used by educators.
Using a vocabulary rating guide:
In this video students are identifying vocabulary terms on their own, using a self-assessment form of learning vocabulary. Similar to a vocabulary rating guide, students are rating the vocabulary words they find and reflecting on which ones they need further instruction on.
The list-group-label strategy teachers words in a meaningful context. Students have to categorize vocabulary words that are related to one another using inductive reasoning. This strategy is done before reading or a lesson to introduce new vocabulary words and then revisited during and after the reading or lesson to make changes.
"The LGL strategy assumes that some students in the class will have prior knowledge about the focus topic" (Miller, 2011, p.25).
"A good way to augment students' vocabulary knowledge is to have them examine similarities and differences between words or concepts" (Marzano, 2014, para.6).
How to use List-Group-Label:
1) Teacher writes a word or topic on the board.

2) List words associated with that topic. If students have no prior knowledge with the topic, then the teacher should provide the words.

3) Group words with common features. Students should share with one another.

4) Label each category of words that students create.

5) Read the text or go over the lesson while students look for the words that they categorized.

6)Have students revisit concept groups to eliminate and regroup words after the reading or lesson.
(Miller, 2011, p.25)
1) Reading Rockets. (2011). List-Group-Label.
Reading Rockets: Classroom Strategies.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/list_group_label.
This website provides educators with the research that supports the use of this strategy, how and why to use list-group-label, as well as ways to differentiate instruction using list-group-label.
2) WETA. (2014). List-Group-Label.
Adolescent Literacy: Resources for parents and educators of kids in grades 4-12
. Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19780/.
This website highlights the benefits of the list-group-label strategy and how to create and use the strategy. It also provides a printable list-group-label worksheet that can be used in grades 4-12.
3) Readence, J. (ND). List-group-label: A Simple Strategy for Improving Vocabulary and Activating Prior Knowledge.
Edmond Schools.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.edmondschools.net/Portals/0/docs/Writing%20Center/List-Group-Label.pdf.
This PDF lists the procedure on using the list-group-label strategy in the classroom, providing examples, as well as cautions and comments on the strategy.
4) Pinterest. (ND). List-Group-Label.
. Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.pinterest.com/search/pins/?q=list%20group%20label.
Pinterest contains several printable versions of list-group-label graphic organizers. There are also several examples of how this strategy is implemented in the classroom.
5) Lesson Planet. 2014. List Group Label Activities.
Lesson Planet.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.lessonplanet.com/search?keywords=list+group+label+activities.
Several list-group-label activities are available as teacher resources on this website. These include lesson plans and worksheets across a variety of grades.
This video discusses the steps to using the list-group-label strategy, the benefits it presents to learners, and shows a live demonstration of a classroom teacher modeling the strategy for her students.
Contextual redefinition is a strategy where students use context clues along with word level clues to make sense of an unfamiliar term. Word level clues include affixes and prior knowledge. The students puts together clues and information from the text to establish the meaning of an unknown word. Context clues include looking at synonyms, antonyms, explanations, and examples. Teachers need to provide guidance and feedback when using the contextual redefinition strategy to avoid misguiding students to word meanings.
Using Context Clues:
Look at the surrounding sentences for similar terms to the target term.
Look at the surrounding sentences for opposite terms of the target term.
Look at surrounding sentences to give an explanation or definition of the target term.
Look at the surrounding sentences to give examples of the target term.
Example of a Contextual Redefinition Chart:
*May include another column for word-level clues.
(Miller, 2011, p.30)
Marzano's research-based six step process supports contextual redefinition. One of the steps states, "Engage students in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the term" (Marzano, 2014, para.1). Contextual redefinition engages students in looking for word-level clues with context clues to discover the meaning of a new word.
Goals of Vocabulary Instruction:
1) Build Full Concept Knowledge.

(Supporting Strategies: Semantic Mapping & Pre-Teaching Vocabulary)

2) Teach Words in a Meaningful Context.

(Supporting Strategies: Vocabulary Rating Guide & List-Group-Label)

3) Encourage Independent Use of Strategies.

(Supporting Strategy: Contextual Redefinition)
(Miller, 2011, p. 33)
1) Beacon Educator. (2014). Contextual Redefinition.
Reading Educator.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.readingeducator.com/strategies/context.htm.
This article discusses what contextual redefinition is and the steps to using contextual redefinition. It also includes a printable contextual redefinition chart for students.
2) Piper. (ND). Contextual Redefinition Vocabulary Strategy Templates.
Teachers Pay Teachers.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Contextual-Redefinition-Vocabulary-Strategy-Templates-680692.
A set of templates to use for the contextual redefinition strategy are included on this website. There are PDF files available to use, and an outline of steps provided for using this vocabulary strategy with students.
3) Asri, N. (2013). The Analysis of Two Pre-Reading Strategies: Contextual Redefinition and in EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension.
Journal of English and Education.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/L-E/article/download/583/440.
This research report summarizes how a study revealed that contextual redefinition is more effective to be used than word lists as a pre-reading strategy.
This teacher consultant discusses what the strategy contextual redefinition is and how she uses it in her classroom. She scaffolds instruction giving some guidance while also letting students work independently to define new vocabulary.
4) Coone, M. (2011). Context Clues Song.
Video retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDVp6uzUttss.
This song is a fun way to introduce students to using context clues within the vocabulary strategy of contextual redefinition.
5) Kelley, S. (2014). Contextual Redefinition: Using Context Clues. Teachers Pay Teachers. Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Contextual-Redefinition-Using-Context-Clues-198294.
This is an example of a lesson plan that uses contextual redefinition. It shows how students are using their text clues to redefine each word.
Miller, M., & Veatch, N. (2011).
Literacy in Context: Choosing Instructional

Strategies to Teach Reading in Content Areas for Students in Grades 5-12.

Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
**Internet resources and videos for each strategy are cited separately with each of the five strategies.**
Marzano, R. (2014). Tips from Dr. Marzano: Vocabulary for the Common Core.

Research Laboratory.
Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.marzanoresearch.com/

Alber, R. (2014). Doing it Differently: Tips for Teaching Vocabulary.

Retrieved July 12, 2014 from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/vocabulary-

Teaching Channel. (2014). Learning Difficult Vocabulary.

Retrieved July 10, 2014 from https://

Griffin, T. (2011). Semantic Mapping in Class.

Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://

Teaching Channel. (2014). Building Science Vocabulary.

Retrieved July 10, 2014 from https://

Reading Rockets. (2011). List-Group-Label.

Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://

Brewer, M. (2012). Context Clues: Contextual Redefinition.

Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?

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