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Antebellum Culture and Reform
Transcript of Antebellum Culture and Reform
Spirit of Romanticism
Nationalism and Romanticism
in American Painting
Hudson River School
The Last of the Mohicans
by James Fenimore Cooper
“Resist much. Obey little.”
I CELEBRATE myself;
And what I assume you shall assume;
For every atom belonging to me, as good belongs to you.
I loafe and invite my Soul;
I lean and loafe at my ease, observing a spear of summer grass.
Houses and rooms are full of perfumes—the shelves are crowded with perfumes;
I breathe the fragrance myself, and know it and like it;
The distillation would intoxicate me also, but I shall not let it.
The atmosphere is not a perfume—it has no taste of the distillation—it is odorless;
It is for my mouth forever—I am in love with it; 10
I will go to the bank by the wood, and become undisguised and naked;
I am mad for it to be in contact with me.
Song of Myself by Walt Whitman
by Herman Melville
Edgar Allan Poe
Exception to the rule
Most southern writers
William Gilmore Simms
Wanted to preserve the values of the South, including slavery
Augustus B. Longstreet
Joseph G. Baldwin
Johnson J Hooper
Wrote funny yet painfully realistic stories about poor white society in the South. Maybe an influence on Mark Twain?
Reason and Understanding
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
“In the midst of the awful stillness with which such a burst of feeling, coming as it did, from the two most renowned warriors of that region, was received, Tamenund lifted his voice to disperse the multitude.”
- The Last of the Mohicans
“reason” = The individuals innate capacity to grasp beauty and truth by giving full expression to instincts and emotions.
“understanding” = Artificial ways imposed by society; it involved the repression of instinct and the victory of externally imposed victory.
“Resistance to Civil Government”
Inspired Gandhi and MLK
Lasting Impact: The Defense of Nature or the New Understanding of Nature
Plan for the New Harmony Colony (Library of Congress)
-Failure of Brook Farm
The Romantic Impulse: Visions of Utopia
Redefined Gender Roles
John Humphrey Noyes
Commitment to Celibacy
Published in 1830
Revivalism, Morality, and Order
Religious Basis of Reform
Charles Grandison Finney
Resistance to Scientific Medicine
Oliver Wendell Holmes, his son becomes a famous Supreme Court justice, published “perpetual fever” findings, which helped prove how disease spreads.
Small pox vaccination
Education protects democracy
Tax supported schools
Believe education opportunities were unequal
Helped improve literacy rates
Creation of asylums for crminals and mentally ill
Helped reform the treatment
methods of the mentally ill
Reservation Concept Born
The Rise of Feminism
Protested Gender and Racial
Secondary Status Treatment
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Harriet Beecher Stowe
American Colonization Society
Early Opposition to Slavery
Anti-Abolitionism Violent Reprisals
Radicals and Moderates
The Amistad Case
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Chapter 12 EQ’s
1. Discuss the development by American intellectuals of a national culture committed to the liberation of the human spirit, such as expressed in art, literature, utopian communities, and transcendental philosophy.
2. Discuss the effect of the commitment to the liberation of the human spirit in reinforcing the evangelical reform impulse of the period, in movements as diverse as temperance, education, rehabilitation, and women's rights.
3. Discuss the emergence of the crusade against slavery as the most powerful element in this reform movement, and compare and contrast at least two strategies in this crusade.