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Antebellum Culture and Reform

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by

Dan Conn

on 11 November 2013

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Transcript of Antebellum Culture and Reform

Antebellum and Culture
Chapter 12
Spirit of Romanticism
Romantic Impulse
Nationalism and Romanticism
in American Painting
Sydney Smith
Hudson River School
Frederic Church
Frederic Church
Thomas Cole
Thomas Cole
Thomas Cole
Thomas Cole
Thomas Doughty
Thomas Doughty
Thomas Doughty
Asher Durand
Asher Durand
Asher Durand
Asher Durand
American Literature
The Last of the Mohicans
by James Fenimore Cooper
“Resist much. Obey little.”
Walt Whitman
I CELEBRATE myself;
And what I assume you shall assume;
For every atom belonging to me, as good belongs to you.

I loafe and invite my Soul;
I lean and loafe at my ease, observing a spear of summer grass.

Houses and rooms are full of perfumes—the shelves are crowded with perfumes;
I breathe the fragrance myself, and know it and like it;
The distillation would intoxicate me also, but I shall not let it.

The atmosphere is not a perfume—it has no taste of the distillation—it is odorless;
It is for my mouth forever—I am in love with it; 10
I will go to the bank by the wood, and become undisguised and naked;
I am mad for it to be in contact with me.
Song of Myself by Walt Whitman
Moby Dick
by Herman Melville
Southern Literature
Edgar Allan Poe
Exception to the rule
Most southern writers
discussed nature
William Gilmore Simms
Wanted to preserve the values of the South, including slavery
More often
Augustus B. Longstreet
Joseph G. Baldwin
Johnson J Hooper
Wrote funny yet painfully realistic stories about poor white society in the South. Maybe an influence on Mark Twain?
Transcendentalists
Reason and Understanding
Influenced:
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
“In the midst of the awful stillness with which such a burst of feeling, coming as it did, from the two most renowned warriors of that region, was received, Tamenund lifted his voice to disperse the multitude.”
- The Last of the Mohicans
“reason” = The individuals innate capacity to grasp beauty and truth by giving full expression to instincts and emotions.
“understanding” = Artificial ways imposed by society; it involved the repression of instinct and the victory of externally imposed victory.
“Resistance to Civil Government”
“Civil Disobedience”
Inspired Gandhi and MLK
Lasting Impact: The Defense of Nature or the New Understanding of Nature
Plan for the New Harmony Colony (Library of Congress)

-Failure of Brook Farm
Nathaniel Hawthorne
New Harmony
The Romantic Impulse: Visions of Utopia
Redefined Gender Roles


“Perfectionists”  
John Humphrey Noyes
Shakers
Commitment to Celibacy
Mormanism
Joseph Smith
Published in 1830
Utah Founded 
Nauvoo
Remaking Society
Revivalism, Morality, and Order 
Religious Basis of Reform
Charles Grandison Finney
Cholera Epidemics
Spas
Sylvester Graham
phrenology
Health food
Resistance to Scientific Medicine
Oliver Wendell Holmes, his son becomes a famous Supreme Court justice, published “perpetual fever” findings, which helped prove how disease spreads.
Edward Jenner
Small pox vaccination
Willian Morton
Anesthetics
Horace Mann
Education protects democracy
 
Tax supported schools
Believe education opportunities were unequal
Helped improve literacy rates
Dorothea Dix
Benevolent Empire
Perkins School
Creation of asylums for crminals and mentally ill
Helped reform the treatment
methods of the mentally ill
Reservation Concept Born
The Rise of Feminism
Protested Gender and Racial
Secondary Status Treatment 
Lucretia Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Catherine Beecher
Harriet Beecher Stowe
American Colonization Society
Early Opposition to Slavery
Rejects gradualism
Frederick Douglas
Anti-Abolitionism Violent Reprisals 
Abolitionism Divided
Radicals and Moderates

The Amistad Case
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Chapter 12 EQ’s


1. Discuss the development by American intellectuals of a national culture committed to the liberation of the human spirit, such as expressed in art, literature, utopian communities, and transcendental philosophy.
2. Discuss the effect of the commitment to the liberation of the human spirit in reinforcing the evangelical reform impulse of the period, in movements as diverse as temperance, education, rehabilitation, and women's rights.
3. Discuss the emergence of the crusade against slavery as the most powerful element in this reform movement, and compare and contrast at least two strategies in this crusade.
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