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Diversity of Life Mind Map Hojin Park
Transcript of Diversity of Life Mind Map Hojin Park
...then three... and beyond... Biodiversity Domain of Archaea Domain of Eukarya Domain of Eubacteria - Lack membrane bound organelles - It is assumed that the ancestors of all Eukaryotes formed from Endosymbiosis - Lack membrane-bound organelles, only Ribosomes to produce protein - Are commonly associated
into three specific shapes: cocci
(spherical) Strep Throat bacilli (rod) Anthrax spirilla (spirals) Syphilis - Bacteria exchange DNA to increase genetic
-They do this by: - Bacteria can live: Transduction
(viral infection) Conjugation
(direct transfer) Transformation
(absorption of free DNA) Independently Pairs (diplo) Clusters (stepto) Chains (staphylo) Human Influence - most bacteria that are well known
tend to cause diseases in humans,
like Strep Throat - though other bacteria are beneficial, and even essential;
specific cultures have been used to produce various food and medicine - Some species are capable of surviving in hostile environments - Extreme Thermophiles - Extreme Psychrophiles - Extreme Halophiles - Other species are capable of surviving: Human Influence - The mostly used species of Archaea by humans are methanogens - they are essential to sewage treatment plants as decomposers of human waste - Contains a single Kingdom--Eubacteria - Consists of only one kingdom -- the Kingdom of Archaea - Archaea have cell walls that are unique from the Domain of Bacteria - Are more closely related to Eukaryotes than Bacteria - survive intense heat over 100'C - surviving temperatures as cold as -15'C - thrive in extremely salty conditions - extremely dry conditions - extremely high pH - extremely low pH - heavy metals - high pressure - radiation - as anaerobes, they only survive in conditions without oxygen - metabolize by producing methane - Contains the four Kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Protistia, and Fungi - All species have membrane-bound organelles in their cells - prokaryotes engulfed one another - the infolding of membranes - creation of rectiliums - creation of nucleus - both bacteria benefit from the situation - - internal bacteria reproduce along with external - evolution occurs Kingdom of Protista - is believed that all other eukaryote kingdoms originated from Protista - all unicellular organisms - have membrane bound organelles - it is debated as whether this kingdom should exist Algae - are autotroph - believed to be the ancestoral species of all land plants - only live in aquatic environments - can float freely or form anchored colonies - most species reproduce using alternation of generations, similar to land plants Protozoas - are heterotroph - some species use cilia to move -others (ie. Amobea) use pseudopodia ("false feet") - species reproduce by swapping pieces of DNA and then perform mitosis Slime Molds - are heterotroph - ingest other organisms to metabolize - use photosynthesis to metabolize - excrete enzymes and absorbs nutrients - produce fruiting bodies and spores to reproduce Human influence - one species of seaweed is popular in asian cultures - used in many traditional dishes - a species of protozoa causes malaria - kills millions per year Kingdom of Plantae - all multicellular organisms - are autotroph - use photosynthesis - few are also heterotroph (ie. Venus Flytrap) - have cell walls compose of cellulose - vascular system, xylem and phloem - reproduction by seeds - pollination by flowering Bryophytes - lack a vascular system - short - first of all land plants; simplest - developed stomata and waxy cuticle to control water loss - only live in moist environments - - are sessile; immobile Pterophytes - developed xylem and phloem to transport nutrients and water - simple root system - grow taller Gymnosperms - male gametophytes are encased in pollen grains - pollen carried by wind or animals, - not restricted to only moist areas - protective seed casing Angiosperms - 90% of all land plants are this Phyla - produce flowers to attract pollinators (insects, animals) - after fertilization, fruit is made - some fruits attract animals - others are carried by wind or water Moss - example of bryophytes - swimming sperm requires water to reach eggs - short distances of reproduction - plant life cycles alternate with sporophyte (2n) and gametophyte (n) Fern - the Fiddlehead fern, an example of an Pterophytes - still requires water for swimming sperm to fertilize eggs Conifers - the Spruce, a coniferous tree, is an example of a gymnosperm - because their pollen can be airborne, there is no need for water to transfer sperm Dicot - two seed leaves - seeds are not encased in fruit - series of five or petals - vascular systems in this are group in concentric circles - net-like leaves -differentiates into dicot and monocot Monocot - one seed leaf - series of three petals - vascular systems in this are scattered - parallel veins in leaves Kingdom of Fungi - originally thought to have been plants -have cell walls made of chitin - are heterotroph - some are unicellular organisms - others are multicellular -excrete enzymes - absorb nutrients Human Influence - fruits and vegetables, wood, and medicine - mass deforestation devastates the environment Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota - organisms inseparable - flow and engulf prey - have oral cavity - range greatly in size - some are unicellular - some form symbiotic relationships with algae/cyanobacteria; called lichen - many infect plants - familiar as bread/fruit molds - some are parasitic to arthropods - spore are resistant to freeze-drying - have swimming spores - some infect animals, protists and plants - some are unicellular - all form symbiotic relationships with plants - most familiar as mushrooms - most are decomposers - some forms decompose trees Penicillium - an ascomycota fungi - symbolically infects fruit Human Influence - extracts are used in the antibiotic penicillin Black Bread Mold - grows on breads - can also infect soft fruit - earliest fungi to develop Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - infects amphibians - responsible for mass declinations of many amphibians - discovered only recently in 1998 Glomus intraradices - used in agriculture Human Influence - improves crop growth - benefits forest growth as well Umber-Brown Puffball - like other puffballs, is roundly shaped - releases spores when disturbed - produces fruiting body that contains spores Kingdom of Animals - are heterotroph - ingest food - are all multicellular - can move freely - no cell walls - True tissues - Bilateral symmetry - Body cavity - Coetom (fluid-filled cavity) - Segmentation - Endoskeleton (internal) - Backbone - Specialized structures - Distinct body parts - Increased reproduction/digestion - Redundancy - Greater body size - Greater body/brain size - Increase mobility Porifera - Lacks true tissue - Cells are not organized Cnidaria - Sessile; immobile - Unique stinging structures - Digestive cavity - Radially symmetrical - Single opening Platyhelminthes - Development of a brain - Head with sensory organs - Parasitic Nematoda - Pseudocoelomates - Development of body cavity - Separate mouth and anus Mollusca - Muscular foot - Visceral mass - Mantle - Some covered in a shell Annelids - Segmented body parts - Specialized digestive system + nerve cord Arthropoda - Paired, jointed appendages - Developed exoskeleton - Segmented body Echinoderm - Developed endoskeleton - Secondary radial symmetry - Unique "tube feet" Chordata - Developed spinal cord + nerve cord - Muscular, post-anal tail - Pharyngeal slits Fish - Chordrichthyes
(cartilage) - Actinopterygii (bony) - Jaws - Gills - Ectotherm (cold-blooded) - Two-chambered heart Amphibians - Legs with digits - Moist skin - Breath through skin - Lungs (positive-pressure) - Three-chambered heart - Ectotherm Reptiles - Dry skin, scales, or armor - Lungs (negative-pressure) - Three-chambered heart -Ectotherm -Amniotes (land eggs) Birds - Feather + wings - Lungs + air sacs - Four-chambered heart (analogous) - Endotherm (warm-blooded) -Amniotic eggs Mammals - Hair + specialized teeth - Lungs + diaphragm - Four-chambered heart (analogous) - Endotherm - Live birth Monotremes - Egg-laying mammals - No placenta - No true nipples Marsupials - Pouched-mammals - Nipples within pouch - Short-lived placenta Eutherians - True placenta - Nutrient/waste filter Human Influence - Various animals have been kept in zoos or as pets - Domestic and Exotic - Others are raised in farms - Produce meat, milk, etc