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Greco- persian war
Transcript of Greco- persian war
Many independent city states were involved in the control of Athenians and the Spartans. And Athenians and the Spartans were 2 leaders for them
Persians were also helped by the other pro-Persian forces. The First Persian Invasion of Greece The first Persian invasion of Greece started in 492B.C. The invasion was ordered by King Darius 1. Persians conquered Thrace, Macedon, Eretria and other city-states. However, Athens and other mainland of Greece stood being liberate because of winning the Battle of Marathon (one of the major battles). Battle of Marathon The Battle of Marathon was fought in September 490 B.C. The Persians with 100,000 troops under Datis (the commander), Landed on the bay of Marathon. But the Athenian had only 10,000 and the Plataeans had only 1000 troops under Miltiades.
Anyway the Battle was fought in the plain of Marathon. Miltiades had this good formation to defeat the Persians even though they were outnumbered. Like the picture in the right side, He weaken the middle part and used the sides to attack the center of their troops when they came up. And the terrains helped because the Persians needed push up but the Athenians was able to push down + they knew better about the land so they knew the path of going around
At last Persian lost and 6400 guys died and Athenians only lost 192 guys. Battle of Plataea Persians Greek Soldiers Greco-Persian Wars 499–449 BC N.S. , Gill. "Timeline of the Persian Wars." Timeline of Major Events in the Persian Wars. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/persianwars/a/TimePersianWars.htm>.
"Greco-Persian Wars ." Heritage History. <http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_grecopersian.php>.
"Greek and Persian Forces." Armies of the Persian Wars. <http://www.sarissa.org/war/persian_wars/per_army.php>.
"The Persian War." oracle think quest. <http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0210200/ancient_greece/persian_war.htm>.
"The Four Most Important Battles Of Ancient Greece." all that is interesting. November 16, 2011 . <http://all-that-is-interesting.com/the-four-most-important-battles-of-ancient-greece>.
Citation Why were they fighting? Cyrus (the founder of the Persian empire) conquered Lydia in Asia minor and other Greek city-states. However the Ionians refused to follow the Persian rule. And then when the Darius the Great came, Ionians planned to revolt which was the start of the Greco-Persian Wars. Darius had crushed the revolts, but he proclaimed that he will also punish the Athens who had helped the revolt and just wanted to control the city-states in their mainland. He was threatening the Greek city-states to submit but the Spartans and the Athenians didn't.
From their it started the "First Persian Invasion of Greece." Why were they fighting #2 The Second Persian Invasion of Greece Battle of Thermopylae The ruler before the war was the Cyrus of Persia. And that time, it was the days when Cyrus had conquered many other states. Also was the time when Ionians started to refuse to listen to them.
The Persians permitted the Greeks to have the own local governments (democracy). But the Persians were monarchy.
However when Darius came, he raised taxes and tightened Persian rules which made others to revolt Greco - Persian Wars The Persian didn't attacked the Greeks for 10 years after the lost in the battle of Marathon. Because Darius was planning for a second invasion. However, he died so instead of him, his son Xerxes 1 took several extra years to get ready. Finally, in 480 B.C. Xerxes headed with an enormous army about 100,000 troops. The Battle of Thermopylae was one of the most popular last stands. where it was fought in Thermopylae, a narrow pass in the north of Thessaly. Persians with 100,000 and 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, under king Leonidas. The Spartans lost (because of a guy named Ephialtes had betrayed and told the other path), but they won morally by fighting until they all died. Which inspired other city-states to fight on. The Spartans also killed thousands of Persians because of the terrain (or the pass way) was very narrow, So it was a disadvantage for the Persians with large troops (couldn't attack at once) and was a advantage for the Spartans. Battle of Thermopylae After the Battle of Thermopylae and other few battles (Persian won), there was a battle called the battle of Salamis (fought in September 480 B.C.). Greeks were stationed at the island of Salamis after they were evacuated. The Battle was fought in the Straits of Salamis.
The Greeks had only 370 ships under Themistocles while the Persians had over 1000 under Xerxes. However because the ships were too many for the spot on the sea and which made them disorganized and hard to maneuver, Greeks had a decisive victory over them keeping Peloponnesus. Greeks losing 40 ships while Persians lost 200 ships. The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
It was fought in 479 B.C. August near the city of Plataea in Boeotia.
Greeks had 100,000 strong troops under Pausanias the Spartan. The Persians with 300,000 Persians, and with 50,000 Greek auxiliaries, under Mardonius. The Result However the Greeks won by killing 257,000 and only leaving 43,000 Persian (4000 fled before war).
The reason was that the soldier of Spartan killed Mardonius which made the Persians start to flee. And also the Greek weapons were much stronger than the Persians. Forming of a Delian League and Wars aftermath = Peace over 30 years, Athens continued to fight battles with Persia for control of the dozens of Greek colonies in the Aegean Sea (479-449 B.C.).
And also, it was the time when the Delian League had ( 'First Athenian Alliance' which later was Athenian Empire) formed.
The Delian League and the Persians were keep fighting and FINALLY, the lost of Persians in the Battle of Salamis(#2), the war ended and there was a Peace treaty among those two countries. How the Mindset of the people contributed to either their victory or defeat. How the outcome of the battles affected history? The life after the war After the end of Persian Wars, the Delian league soon became the Athenian Empire. And soon there was a War called the "Peloponnesian War" between Athens and Spartans. So that was very unlucky for the Greeks to have a war again. Later the Spartans won
The Persians were ruled by a guy named Artaxerxes I (son of Xerxes). However even though the Persians lost, they were still very powerful. The mindset of Persia was just simply trying to conquer very fast by not wasting time. They had really powerful and a large army so they thought they will gonna just crush everyone. Using large troops as an advantage not being smart. Also they were very arrogant of their powers.
The mindset of Greeks were really different from the Persians. Greeks were more eager to win because simply they were under control, and wanted independence. And they though they would had all die if they had lost the war. Also they were weaker then the Persians so they had to fight smart. the Persians didn't really had a specific soldier. They just added up as they conquered new guys. They were from Persians, Indians, Elamites, Medes, Egyptians, Ethiopians, Scythians, Arabians etc. Because of that, they also had various weapons the outcome of the battles affected history by having an another battle. Because if they had lost the Persians, the Peloponnesian War wouldn't be there.
Also the democracy was spread faster because of the victory. Because if they had lost, they government might have been disappeared by the government of the Persians which was Monarchy.
the Greeks had heavily armored infantrymen known as Hoplites and lightly armored troops known as Peltastais.
the Hoplites were major fighting forces and the Peltastais were used for hit-and-run tactics.