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Nuclear Power

Group Presentation for 183EW
by

Rita Chen

on 17 August 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Power

Other Uses of Nuclear technology
-Food and Agriculture:
Problem
: 1. 800 million people in the world are chronically malnourished; ten of thousand die from hunger.
Solution
:

Ionizing radiation--> induce mutations in plant breeding to solve for chronically malnourished

-Water resources
Problem
: 2.2 million die annually from contaminated water) :
Solution
:
Isotope hydrology technique


-Medicine
: 1.
Technetium-99m
2. Iodine-131
3. Gamma rays
Nuclear Power:
Past, Present, and Future

Jonathan Balcewicz
Pin-Han Chen
Yanfeng Zeng
Is it Economically Feasible?
Fuel rods last 1.5 years -> low repeated costs
Is it dangerous to the environment?
Is it Safe?
1. High-quality design & construction;

2. Equipment that prevents operational
disturbances or human failures;

3. Monitoring and regular testing to detect operational failure;

4. Redundant and diverse systems to control damage to the fuel
What are some solutions?
How Does it Work?
The principle of nuclear power reactors is to produce energy from
fission of the atoms
of fuels (normally uranium-235); the energy is used as heat to produce steam. The steam drives the turbines that produce electricity.



Has it Failed Before?
What Ethics were Broken?
Chernobyl
Fukushima-Daiichi
Three-Mile Island
What is it?
Radiation
Accidents -> potentially bankrupting,
even not including ethical cost
History
Radioactive material undergoes nuclear decay rxns
When operating normally, it isn't
Radioactive waste can be recycled for multiple uses and then stored.
Upgrade Existing Reactors
Nuclear Waste
Sites for New Reactors
1. Sites with minimal natural disasters

2. Isolated Sites
1. Renewal of license after upgrade

2. Evaluations of current reactors
1. Recycling

2. Storage Underground
Nuclear Reactors produce no greenhouse gases
Safeguards expensive to build and test ->
high one-time costs
These rxns release high-energy photons and particles (ionizing radiation)
If decay products collide with important molecules, provides energy to break
Under normal operation, nuclear plants release far less radiation than other sources, both natural and unnatural
Fission of atoms
Radioactive Waste
Three levels of waste
Low: 90% of wastes, contain only 1% of radioactivity

Intermediate: 7% of wastes, contain 4% of radioactivity
High: 3% of wastes, contain 95% of radioactivity
Regulations on Nuclear Waste
Safe in a few years -> not problematic
NRC Guide 4.21
Mostly spent fuel rods. Must be stored for 7-10 thousand years (or radioactive content reduced by other methods) to return to levels found in Uranium ore
Regulations on Nuclear Power Plants in the Case of Earthquakes
Regulatory Guide 1.12
$300-$400 million to fully de-commission

Regulation on Qualification & Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants
Regulatory Guide 1.8
ANSI/ANS 3.1 - 1993
How much radiation is considered safe?
1789 - Discovery of Uranium

1895 - Start of the Study of Atomic Radiation

1939 - WWII Started

1942 - First Controlled nuclear chain reaction

1945 - Two atomic bombs were dropped in Japan

1954 - Open of Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant
Under Federal Regulation:

Astronauts: 25000 mrems/mission

Average Natural Background: 300 mrems/yr

Occupational for Adult: 5000 mrem/year

Life time exposure : 1000 mrem * age

Minors: 500 mrem/yr

Fetus: 500 mrem/yr
Pin- Han Chen
Pin-Han Chen
Pin-Han Chen
Made by Pin-Han Chen
Presented by Jonathan
Pin-Han Chen
Pin-Han Chen
Made by Pin-Han Chen
Presented by Jason Zeng
Pin-Han Chen
Pin-Han Chen
Made by Pin-Han Chen
Presented by Jason Zeng
Made by Pin-Han Chen
Presented by Jonathan
Yanfeng Zeng
Yanfeng Zeng
Yanfeng Zeng
Yanfeng and Jonathan
Yanfeng Zeng
Jonathan Balcewicz
Jonathan Balcewicz
Jonathan Balcewicz
Full transcript