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European Exploration

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Joelle Borchers

on 5 October 2012

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Transcript of European Exploration

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Europe's Overseas Age of Exploration Motives for European
Exploration Conclusion In the end the development of trade, the Caravel, and increasing the rate of exploration throughout the world allowed new country's to be found and new nations to be created. This is all due to the engineering of ships and trade routes to allow easier connections to foreign lands. This was all in order to reach foreign lands such as India and china in order to obtain things like silk and spices. This though was not the explores only goal. They also desired to spread their own ideals such as religion and politics to foreign lands in order to gain control of the locals.
As well as gaining control of new lands, many counties expanded in order to extend their own nations foothold and power in the world. Even though some of the goals of exploration were not all just, these goals were a key part to making our society today. If some of these goals had not existed one might say our very own country may have never been founded.
During this time period there were still key figure such as Christopher Columbus, Francisco Pizarro, and vasco de gamma. Christopher Columbus in his pursuit of trade accidentally found the Caribbean islands. Francisco Pizarro landed on the pacific coast of South America but sadly wiped out the incans. Finally vasco de gama, he was the first one to sail south down the coast of Africa. So in conclusion the age of exploration is a key part to the creation of many of are current nations that we know today. Slave Trade The trade connection between Europe, the Americas, and Africa was called the triangular trade. The trading that went on between the three countries circulated created a booming economy, which then grew as demand went up. Europe would sail to the coast of Africa and trade manufactured goods such as guns and cloth for slaves. The slaves were then transported to the Americas through the Middle Passage, or the middle segment of the triangular trade route. The slaves would then be sold to the Americans by European merchants. With the money they got from selling slaves, they bought tobacco, molasses, sugar, and raw cotton to bring back to Europe. Triangular Trade Portugal Exploration Spanish Empire and
Exploration Columbian Exchange Introduction For almost 1000 years Europeans remained in only one part of the world. In the fifteenth century, Europeans ventured overseas exploring the outside world unknown to them. Reasons for their exploration were trade and economic motives, to find Land and to convert natives into Christians. After the Reformation, people had found faith and new respects for the church. Europeans Monarchies had gained much money from their trade with the middle east and Asia. As a result they created Sea able ships to sail and to and conquer new land unknown to Europe. In this land they searched for precious metals, and goods to support their country.These metals and Goods would eventually help increase the countries economical. Another Reason for their sea travel was to find a better and less dangerous route to Asia. Vasco da Gama was the first european explore to sail around the tip of Africa and make it to Asia. The Last reason for there expansion was to convert the rest of the world to Christianity. The Europeans believed that for Jesus to come back to earth the rest of the world had to be converted to Christianity. These Reasons were the cause of the European Exploration. The Portuguese started exploration, and developed the first true oceangoing ships. The caravel was a ship first made and used by Portuguese. Its 3 masts and small body allowed it to go out on open waters. Portuguese exploration began in 1940 and was sponsored by Prince Henry the Navigator. The Portuguese sailed south around the coast of Africa.
The discoveries of the Portuguese included gold, which was found in the Gold Coast on the western coast of Africa. In search for a new route for spice trade, Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, arrived off the port of Calicut, and brought a cargo of spices back to Portugal. Because of their guns and seamanships, it made the Portuguese the first successful European explorers. The goal of Spanish exploration was to sail westward across Atlantic to look for a route to Asia. Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer whose trip was funded by Queen Isabella of Spain and a Spanish ship owner. Columbus first touched land in the Bahamas in 1942 believing he was in the East Indies.
Amerigo Vespucci was head of the Medici bank in Spain's main port city, Florence. He believed that Columbus had found a new world. The Treaty of Tordesilles played a crucial role in Spanish exploration. The Portuguese and Spanish had many disputes while claiming land around the world. As a result, the Pope drew an imaginary line from the North to South Pole. This gave everything East of the line to Portugal, and everything west to the Spanish. Slave trade was initially added at the
end of the 14th century. The primary market for enslaved Africans was South West Asia, but in the 1490's the discovery of the Americas changed slave demand drastically. There were three main locations slaves were sold. These locations were the Akan mines of the Gold Coast in Western Africa, Europe, and the Americas . The strongest slaves were sold to work in the Akan mines . The second category of slaves were sent to Europe for domestic work. The final group was taken to South America and the Caribbean. Thus, the invention of large agricultural estates or plantations were introduced. The slave trade had good and bad effects. The effectiveness of the slaves in the Americas doubled productivity rate of all of their goods. This allowed England to have more products to sell and two use in their everyday lives. The awful effects of the slave trade happened to the slaves and Africa. The slave trade caused african tribes to breakup and go to war with each other. The African-chiefs now armed with guns, started to raid other villages. The Increase in Warfare and the decrease in population led many beautiful african societies into the ground, and they were replaced with corrupt and brutal places. Profiles The Columbian Exchange was the swapping of plants and animals between the Europeans and the Americas. Europe carried plants, animals, citrus fruits, honey bees, horses and cattle to the Americas. In exchange the Americas would supply and ship potatoes, cocoa, corn, cotton and tobacco to the Europeans. This transformed economic activity in both worlds. A rapid increase in population was made possible because of the enabling of more people to survive on smaller plots of land. Exploration Map Triangular Trade Route King Afonso: King Afonso started building churches and made Catholicism the state religion. He is best known for his hard working attempt in converting Congo to a Christian town. In Afonso's time period, slave trade became a huge part of the economy. Afonso attempted to control and later abolish slave trade, but it did not succeed. In a letter to the king of Portugal in 1526, King Afonso of Congo stated, "So great is the corruption that our country is being completely depopulated." Afonso died in 1543, and his death went unnoticed by the King of Portugal.

Vasco da Gama: Vasco de Gama was a Portuguese navigator and explorer born in Sines, Portugal around 1460. His main success was finding a water route to India. Vasco de Gama was the first to travel by sea from Portugal to India. His success was proved to be one of the more instrumental moments in the history of navigation. He was commissioned by the Portuguese king to find this route to the East. The term "Da Gama epoch" is used to describe the era of European commercial expansion launched by his navigational work.

Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus was an explorer and navigator who was born in 1451 in the Republic of Genoa, Italy. Columbus first went to sea at the age of 10, and before that worked as a map maker. He married one of the leading Portuguese ladies. Columbus believed he could reach Asia by sailing west instead of east around Africa. Columbus' expedition was sponsored by Queen Elizabeth of Spain. Columbus first touched land in Bahamas in 1492, and believed he was in the east indies.

Montezuma: Montezuma was born in 1397. He was an Aztec emperor. Montezuma ordered all subject people to provide workers and material for the building of a new temple. During Montezuma's reign rules of conduct were established and made a clear line between the different levels of Aztec society. The two classes were the noble class and the lower class. Montezuma himself wore expensive jewels and clothing, along with a headdress with bright feathers. Montezuma died in 1469 and was succeeded by his 19 year old cousin.

Francisco Pizarro: Fransico Pizarro was the main Spanish Conquistador. He was an explorer and solider born around 1471 in Trujillo, Spain. In December 1530, Francisco Pizarro landed on the Pacific coast of South America with only a small band of about 180 men. Pizarro brought gun powder, steel weapons, and horses along with him. Pizarro and his soldiers marched on Cuzco, an Inca city, and captured the Inca capital. By 1535, Pizarro had established a new captial at LIma for a new colony of the Spanish Empire. Pizarro founded Lima, Peru, which happened to be where he died, in June of 1541. Jackson, Spielvogel. Glencoe World History Modern Times. New York, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010. (accessed October 3, 2012).
Gale, Thomason. "Vasco De Gama." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomason Corporation, 2005-2006. Print. <http://www.bookrags.com/biography/vasco-da-gama/>.
"Marco Polo and His Travels." Marco Polo and His Travels. http://www.silk-road.com/artl/marcopolo.shtml (accessed October 5, 2012). Bibliography The Table of Contents
Introduction
The motives of Exploration
Portugal and Spain
Spanish Empire
Colombian Exchange
English Rivalries
Triangular Trade
Slave Trade
Conclusion For the longest time, Europe was fascinated by Asia. Marco Polo, his uncle, and his father decided to find and establish a trade route to China. They began their journey to China in 1260. After nine years they reached China, meeting the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan. twenty-four years later the family went back to Italy, creating the first land trade route. Marco Polo. He wrote a book about all of his experiences, called "The Travels". This book soon fascinated and compelled other explorers to go on voyages,overseas, searching new realms and people to conquer and trade with. As exploration became more common, and more land was discovered, a new, more advanced world was created. Trade routes grew rapidly, making the economy stronger than ever. This helped them gain many spices, money, metals, and slaves for a cheaper cost, making them richer, and allowing them the ability to become even more technologically advanced. Christianity had spread to the Americas and Africa because of the colonies and trading posts created by the Europe, making European’s one step closer to having salvation. Exploration also expanded European monarch’s territories, increasing their power to vast amounts.The Age of Exploration was one of the most progressive times in history, economically, socially, politically, and religiously.The amount of advancements made between 1200 and 1700 was a big contribution to what the world is like today. Without the Portugal’s ship and navigation, Europe’s metallurgy to make weapons, and the motivation to find land, explorers would never have gone on voyages where they accidentally found a completely new continents, and the world would still only be Europe. King Afonso Montes Montezuma Vasco da Gama Christopher Columbus Marco Polo Caravel Ship
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