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Unit 7: Ancient Greece

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Kevin Hunt

on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Unit 7: Ancient Greece

located on the Aegean coast
Athens was
first ruled by kings- later nobles, merchants, and manufacturers took over the government
First form of government was an OLIGARCHY (government in which few people have ruling power)
Athenians didn't want disputes leading to uprisings so they government agreed to make reforms to society
POLIS (city-state)
-geographic and political power of Greek life
Farming villages, fields and orchards were grouped around the acropolis
ACROPOLIS (fortified hill)
- at the top was a temple of the local god
AGORA (open area used as a market place)
Artisans, traders, merchants, and the upper class all settled around the agora
700BC this part of the inner polis became a city
Located in the south central region in the area known as Peloponnesus
Greatest military power in Greece
First ruled by a king

took over the government
---> two kings ruled jointly
---> only power- lead the army and conduct religious ceremonies
Aristocrats could only be Spartan citizens
citizens 20 or older were part of a governing body called the Assembly
Spartans had
no interest in farming
land was worked by

HELOTS (enslaved people owned by the city-states)
--->Helots had to turn over 1/2 of their crops to the aristocrats who owned the land
Business or trade was left to the

PERIOECI (merchants & artisans)
---> they were not enslaved nor were they citizens
Helots and Perioeci worked while the aristocrats trained for war
750BC Helots and Perioeci outnumbered the aristocrats
The Spartans had two choices:
1) they could make conditions better for the Helots and Perioece
2) they could keep things the way they are
The Spartans were afraid of change, so they chose to keep things the same
Spartan women enjoyed more freedom denied to other women in Greece
mixed freely with men
participated in sports such as wrestling and racing
Spartan women
encouraged their men in battle
---> Men were expected to come home carrying their shields or be brought home dead on their shields

Unit 7: Ancient Greece
The Polis
Draco- First Athenian to change the government
---> He failed because his punishments were too harsh
- Second Athenian to make reforms
594 BC Solon, a rich merchant, created a CONSTITUTION ( set of principles and rules for governing) for the government
Constitution: limited land ownership, erased all debts, offered citizenship to all citizens, and ordered that every father teach his son a trade
Under Solon: More people took part in government and trade increased
560 BC Peisistratus took over. He followed the constitution and encouraged sculpture and other arts
Decline of Athens
Athens became powerful and other city-states were resentful
Peloponnesian War occurred when Athens attacked one of Sparta's allies causing Sparta and it's allies to attack Athens
war lasted 30 years and ended in 404 BC when Athens surrendered to Sparta
Athenians later revolted and became powerful again but Athens was never as powerful as it had been before the war
Image by goodtextures: http://fav.me/d2he3r8
Lesson 4: Greek City-States
All city-states
had their own governments and laws
contained between 5,000 and 10,000 citizens
Only citizens could vote, own property, hold office, and speak for themselves in court
----> foreigners, women, children, and slaves were not considered citizens
put the good of the Polis above everything else
Two greatest city-states:

Assembly made decisions only on war or peace
- 5 Spartan managers in charge of public affairs
Council of Elders
- the men had to be 60 years old or older- they suggested laws and served as the high court
Spartan Government
Aristocrats, Helots, Perioeci
The Spartans tried to be the strongest people in Greece
Babies were examined shortly after birth to see if they were healthy, if not they were left on a hill to die
Spartan Men
At the age of 7 boys went to live in military camps
There they learned to read, write, and use weapons
The boys
received small amounts of food, they went barefoot, and were only given one cloak to wear
Spartan Way of Life
Spartan boys were taught to only speak when necessary and not to make eye contact unless invited to
Slept outdoors without cover and were inspected every 10 days to make sure they weren't getting fat
Spartan men were expected to marry at the age of 20
They didn't own a house but lived in the army barracks
They could retire from the army at age 60
Spartan Women
Decline of the Spartans
The Spartans
believed new ideas would weaken their way of life
---> they tried to prevent change
remained a poor farming society dependent on the labor of slaves
Spartan city-state ended in 371 BC
Athenian Reforms
508 BC Cleisthenes took over Greece
He put into effect the world's first democratic constitution favoring equality for all
His reforms lasted until the fall of Greece 300 years later
Under Cleisthenes
Council of Five Hundred created- handled the daily business of Athens
Athenians believed every citizen was smart enough to hold public office- every Athenian had a chance to be in the Council
Citizens were required to educate their sons
---> attended private schools or had a tutor
learned writing, math, music, poetry, and recited from memory parts of Homer's epic poems
Age 18 males became citizens
---> at the Temple of Zeus they swore and oath in front of family and friends to be honorable in battle, follow the Constitution, and respect their religion
Women in Athens
Women in Athens didn't have as much freedom as women in Sparta
Athenian women
could not be involved in politics
could only leave the house with their husband, or a chaperone
Women in Athens
only left home to go to special events, a wedding, or a funeral
They were
not allowed to own property or inherit from their husbands
Athenian women also
weren't allowed to attend sporting events
Full transcript