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SPED 421 Oppositional Defiant Disorder

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by

Larisa Herbert

on 23 July 2013

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Transcript of SPED 421 Oppositional Defiant Disorder

SPED 421
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
By: Larisa Herbert
Definition
A childhood disorder which presents an ongoing pattern of anger-guided disobedience, hostility, and defiant behavior towards authority figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal child behavior
Two Separate Sets of Problems:
Aggressiveness
The tendency to bother and irritate others.
The child's behavior often disrupts the child's normal daily activities, including activities within the family, community and at school.
Who is at risk?
Estimates suggest that 2%-16% of children and teens have ODD.
More common in boys in the younger years
Equally common in boys and girls as they grow older.
ODD first manifests during preschool years but is hard to diagnose before the age of 8.
Behaviors of Students
with ODD
Persistent refusal to comply with instructions or rules
Verbal hostility to others
Frequently does things to annoy and disturb adults and peers
Has a low tolerance for frustration
Failure to accept responsibility
Easily annoyed, angered, or irritated
Frequently argues with adults
DSM IV Criteria
Often loses temper
Often argues with adults
Is easily annoyed by others
Blames others for his/her mistakes
Often angry, resentful, spiteful, vindictive
DSM IV Criteria
Factors to be considered:
Must interfere with the child' s ability to function at home, school, or in the community
Cannot be the result of another disorder I.E. Conduct disorder, depression, anxiety...etc...
Must occur for at least six months
Comorbidity
Children diagnosed with ADHD run a higher risk of also being identified as ODD
ODD is very highly associated with Conduct Disorder, a more severe behavior disorder.
How does ODD develop?
Personal Temperament
Psychological Aspects
Environmental Factors
Parental Interactions
Socio-Economic Factors
Genetic Factors
ODD rarely occurs on it's own:

50-65% ADD/ADHD
35% Affective Disorders
20% Mood Disorders
15% Personality Disorders

Learning Disabilities are also common.
Comorbidity
Personal Temperament / Psychological Aspects
the child's temperament and the family's response to that temperament
A developmental delay in the child's ability to process thoughts and feelings

Environmental Factors / Parental Interactions
Genetic Factors
Factors such as a dysfunctional family life, a family history of mental illnesses and/or substance abuse, and inconsistent discipline by parents may contribute to the development of behavior disorders.
Biological Factors
Some studies suggest that defects in or injuries to certain areas of the brain can lead to serious behavioral problems in children. In addition, ODD has been linked to abnormal amounts of certain types of brain chemicals.
Many children and teens with ODD have close family members with mental illnesses, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. This suggests that a vulnerability to develop ODD may be inherited.
Treatment for ODD
There is no uniform treatment for ODD; the treatment plan should be individualized to each student.
Example
Causes
Common Treatments Include:
Individual Therapy
Family Counseling
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Cognitive Problem Solving Training
Collaborative Problem Solving Training
Social Skills Training
Parental Training in appropriate discipline skills
Parent Counseling is also common to help parents cope
Managing ODD in the Classroom had four basic principles
Belonging
Power
Fun
Freedom
Loving, Sharing, and Communicating with others
Belonging
Build Cooperative Relationships
Build Positive Social Skills
Collaborate
Build Cooperative Relationships
Negative feelings between teacher and student can undermine cooperation within the classroom
Discipline directed at the behavior, not the student
Positive feelings encourage cooperation
Build Positive Social Skills
Encourage effective communication, problem solving, and anger management
Consult the school counselor or special education teacher
Facilitate relationship building between students.
Collaborate
Work together with parents, support staff, and the student
Provide Consistency in and out of the classroom
Power
Be Clear, Consistent, and Fair
Positive Expectations
Positive Reinforcement
Be Clear, Consistent, and Fair
Clear and Consistent rules and consequences are important
Understanding the rules and the reasons for them
Positive Expectations
Clearly state expectations for students in a positive, not a negative, manner
Positive Reinforcement
Genuine Positive Reinforcement
Avoid direct, lavish praise
Achieving, Accomplishing, Recognizing, and Respecting
Freedom
Making Choices
Avoid Power Struggles
Help students understand and control their emotions
Avoid Power Struggles
Choose your battles carefully
Give options and avoid direct commands
Arguing and raising your voice may be a form or reward rather than punishment
Understand the purpose of challenging behaviors
Offer the child a face-saving out
Understand and Manage Emotions
Teach students how to recognize and manage their emotions
Develop student's self-awareness and self-control
Cool-down strategies
Fun
Playing and Laughing
Provide engaging and suitable learning activities
Make Learning Fun
Identify strengths and weaknesses to aid engagement
Positive Behavioral Supports
Alter the Classroom Environment
Maintain Predictability
Model Appropriate Behavior
Always be firm, consistent and unemotional
What to Avoid:
Engage in arguments
Embarrass the child
Lose your temper
Make threats
Make promises or bribes
Overreact
State requests as a question
Teachers could also use:
Behavioral contracts
Behavioral report cards
Open communication with parents for both positive and negative behavior
What will be covered:
Definition
Characteristics
Comorbidity
Causes
Treatment
Classroom Strategies
What to Avoid
Full transcript