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maddy letterman

on 21 January 2015

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Transcript of Leviathan

Thomas Hobbes
April 5, 1588-December 4, 1679
His most famous work was "Leviathan", in which he argued that the people needed to be governed by an absolute monarchy.
Because he was associated with William Cavendish, he got involved with affairs in Parliament. He sat in on many debates over the extent of the power of the king, which influenced his belief in absolute authority of the sovereign.
Hobbes' Views on Government
Government was put into place to protect the citizens from their selfish desires.
"A 'law of Nature,' les naturalis, is a precept or general rule found out by reason by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life or takes away the means of preserving the same, and to omit that by which he thinks it may be best preserved." Paragraph 3
Absolute monarchy offered the best protection to the people
The amount of money a person gave to the government contributed to how much say that person had in political decisions
The common people aren't "smart" enough to be involved in political decisions
How did Thomas Hobbes' "The Leviathan" influence the construction of the US Constitution?
How did the Founding Fathers agree with Hobbes views? How did they disagree?
What ideas of the Constitution could be linked to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes?
Thomas Hobbes and The U.S. Constitution Continued
The Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes captures the feelings of human nature and commonly brings up the constant struggle of "good and evil".
Thomas Hobbes' views influenced the Constitution and acted as models for how they should construct their government.
What do you think attributes to a person's character? How important is character, if it is at all?
Eden Steel
Maraide Green
Maddy Letterman
Period 2

Hobbes Views on Human Rights
The common man is selfish, wicked, and should not be trusted to govern themselves.
"For the savage people in many places of America, except in the government of small families the concord whereof depends on natural lust, have no government at all, and live at his day in that brutish manner as I said before." Paragraph 11
"So that in the nature of man we find three principal causes of quarrel. First, competition; secondly, diffidence;thirdly, glory." Paragraph 6
"For such is the nature of men that, howsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more iwtty or more eloquent or more learned, yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise as themselves for they see their own wit at hand and other men's at a distance." Paragraph 2
The sovereignty was superior to the common man.
Thomas Hobbes and
The U.S. Constitution
Both believed that the government was obligated to protect the people, but the US government wanted to protect the people's natural rights.
"Renouncing and transfering of rights is introduced is nothing else but the sercurity of a man's person in his life and in the means of so preserving life as not to be weary of it. And therefore, if a man by words or other signs seem to despoil himself to the end for which those signs were intended, he is not to be understood as if he meant it or that it was his will, but that he was ignorant of how such words and actions were to be interpreted. The mutual transferring of right is that which men call 'contract.'" Chapter XIV Paragraph 8
Federalists believed, like Hobbes, that the common man was inferior to the educated man.
Thomas Hobbes and The U.S. Constitution Continued
All of the Founding Fathers disagreed with Hobbes, especially the Anti-Federalists, because he favored a monarchy, and they didn't even want a federal government.
"...and where there is no coercive power erected, that is, where there is no commonwealth, there is no propriety, all men having right to all things: therefore, where there is no commonwealth, there nothing is unjust." Paragraph 3
The idea of a representative government is parallel to Hobbes ideas of a diverse group of representatives in Parliament speaking on the behalf of the people.
Thomas Hobbes and
Edgar Huntly
Thomas Hobbes and
Edgar Huntly
How were Hobbes' points in
paralleled in Brown's
Edgar Huntly
What are the main points made in
In the opening of the passage, Hobbes discusses the difference between animals' voluntary and involuntary motions, just like Huntly is faced with the differences between his voluntary and involuntary motions, like his sleepwalking.
"There be in animals two sorts of 'motions' peculiar to them: one called 'vital'...the other is 'animal motion', otherwise called 'voluntary motion'..." Paragraph 1-Chapter VI
Hobbes also discusses how men's involuntary actions can be affected by things they do and things that others do to them, which is seen when Edgar begins to sleepwalk after seeing Clithero sleepwalk.
"The rest, which are appetites of particular things, proceed form experience and trial of their effects upon themselves or other men." Paragraph 4-Chapter VI
Thomas Hobbes and
Edgar Huntly
Another one of Hobbes points is that when two men have conflicting interests, they inevitably become enemies and will do anything to succeed over the other. This is seen in
Edgar Huntly
, when Huntly, who wants to get home to his family, kills the Indians, who have already killed his family and plan to kill him.
"...in the way to their end, which is principally their own conservation and sometimes their delectation only, endeavor to destroy or subdue one another." Paragraph 3-Chapter XIII
Hobbes also mentions that a fear of death motivates men to do certain things, just like Huntly was motivated to kill the Indians in order to save his own life; it was either his life or theirs.
"The passions that incline men to peace are fear of death, desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living, and a hope by their industry to obtain them." Paragraph 14-Chapter XIII
Hobbes Views on Human Rights
He believed in the social contract in which the citizens give up their natural rights for protection given by the government.
"Whensoever a man transfers his right or renounces it, it is either in consideration of some right reciprocally transferred to himself, or for some other good he hopes thereby. For it is a voluntary act; and of the voluntary acts of eery man the object is some good 'to himself'." Paragraph 8
Here, Hobbes is stating how,even in a selfless act such as giving up his own rights, man still has personal motives behind everything he does. He is always trying to gain something for himself.
What are the main points made in
Hobbes discusses joy that comes from the expectations of an outcome of an event, and Huntly experiences this after he wakes up from sleepwalking. Even though he finds that the Indians outside of the cave have his family's guns, he is still motivated to return to his house in order to find his family.
"Others arise form the expectation that proceeds from foresight of the end or consequence of things, whether those things in the sense please or displease." Paragraph 12-Chapter VI
An over-estimation of confidence is also a key point discussed by Hobbes, and Huntly deals with this when he believes he can figure out what happened to his murdered friend. If he didn't try to figure out what happened to him in the first place by following the sleepwalking Clithero, he wouldn't have gotten himself into his own sleepwalking incident.
"The 'vain-glory' consists in the feigning or supposing of abilities in ourselves which we know are not is most incident to young men..." Paragraph 40-Chapter VI
Chapter VI and XIII
Chapter XIV and XV
The topic of endeavor is brought up the attention of the reader in the first chapter and can be defined as "a serious determined effort."
Human endeavor is talked about because Hobbes believes that man is only a machine and is merely in the world to find pleasure and avoid any type of pain.
According to Hobbes, endeavor is consumed by a person if a person feels appetite or want and aversion or dislike.
The two emotions are evened out by each other, like the two traits good and evil.
Hobbes believes that a man is a reflection of his "body and mind," and that some men are better than others due to the bodies they live in
This belief in man being a machine is contemplated in
Edgar Huntly
, when Huntly struggles with his own subconscious actions.
"Jus natural is the libery each man hath to use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature."
Hobbes discusses the nature of man to obtain his own goals in spite of others.
Hobbes says man is selfish and needs the government to control him.
There needs to be some sort of power that keeps order among the men and keep things just.
Full transcript