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Transcript of Back Safety
Intervertebral disk: cartilage, nucleus pulposis
Normal spine: cervical in lordosis (curved anteriorly), thoracic in kyphosis (curved posteriorly), lumbar in lordosis Different Curvatures of the Spine Lordosis: lumbar vertebra curved more anterior than normal
Kyphosis: thoracic vertebra curved more posterior than normal
Scoliosis: spine curving laterally/medially
Flat back: little curvature in spine Back Injuries Herniated "slipped" disk
Muscle pulls and strains
*These could be caused by: lack of exercise, poor posture, lack of sleep Maintaining Proper Posture It is best to have your spine in it's natural "S" shape Sitting • Keep your head over your shoulders
• Relax your shoulders support your lower back (either with a lumbar roll or in a proper chair)
• Keep knees at same level as hips or slightly lower
• Sit as close to work as possible Standing •Keep feet approx. 1 foot apart and distribute weight evenly
•Stand with one foot on a step stool and frequently switch
•Move around whenever possible
•Tuck chin in and relax shoulders Sleeping •Firm mattress, thin pillow
•Sleep on stomach
•Be well rested (too much sleep can make you stiff, too little can make you fatigued; putting you at greater risk for injury) Lifting Before lifting, ask yourself... • Does this need to be lifted?
• How far does it need to be carried?
• Can I break the item into smaller loads?
• Can I lift and walk safely?
• Will there be doors that are closed?
• Can someone help me?
• Once I pick this up, will I be able to see over it?
• Can a mechanical aid be used? Techniques • Keep a wide base (approx. 1 foot)
• Bend your knees, with your back straight
• Firmly hold the item and lift with your legs, keeping your back straight, your abdominals tightened, and your head up
• Keep back straight or slightly arched
• Walk slowly and surely
• Avoid leaning over
• Avoid lifting over your head
*If you become tired, set load down and take a moment before lifting again (bend at your knees, keeping your back straight) Types of Lifts Squat Lift Bending at hips and knees, and straightening up to lift load. Back should be straight and head up Power Lift Half squat at knees, fully flex hips, head and shoulders should be up, lift object straight up Golfer's Lift • Lean with one hand on counter/chair for support and kick one leg up so as to keep a straight spine, bending at the hips.
*Only for light items!! Overhead Lift • Keep item close to your center of gravity, step forward with legs in a straddle position, transfer weight to the front leg and place item on shelf/rack Tripod Lift • Kneel down with one knee beside the item, and the other bent at 90 degrees. Roll item up on to the knee on the ground, the shift it to the knee bent at 90 degrees. Hold it close to your chest, and stand up from the kneeling position, keeping back straight and head up.
*For heavy/awkward items Pushing and Pulling Horizontal/Vertical Pushing and Pulling Examples • Using manual carts and trucks
• Sliding objects such as cartons on flat surfaces
• Operating tools and controls
• Opening and closing doors
• Wrapping or enclosing objects in packing materials Factors that effect amount of force:
• Body weight and strength
• Height of force application
• Direction and distance of force application
• Friction coefficient
• Duration and distance of push or pull Pushing/Pulling Carts • Always push carts, never pull them. Keep back straight and face the direction of travel
• Should you have to pull a cart, tighten your abdominal muscles and maintain good posture Stretching Wall Squat (for quads & gluts) 1. Stand with back against wall with feet approx. 1 foot away
2. Slide down wall until your knees are at a 45 degree angle
3. Hold for 15 seconds Backward Bend (for spinal muscles) 1. Stand with feet shoulder width apart, place hands on hips
2. Keep head upright and bend back
3. Hold for 15 seconds Side Bending (for obliques, transverse abdominus) 1. Stand with feet shoulder width apart
2. Place hand on hip, stretch other hand over your head
3. Hold for 15 seconds, and do the same for the other side Hip Flexor (for hip flexors) 1. Stand near a wall
2. Bend knee up
3. Grab ankle and pull until you feel a stretch, hold for 15 seconds
4. Repeat for other side Hamstring Stretch (for hamstrings) 1. Place one foot on a chair with a slight knee bend
2. Reach and grab for your ankle until you feel a pull
3. Hold for 15 seconds and repeat for other leg