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Heather Towns

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of Timeline

A History of Education in Ontario
1) Constitutional Act of 1791
2) Upper Canada Established - 1791
4) Grammar School Act of 1807
6) Act of Union 1841
8) Provincial Normal School 1847
12) Free Education - 1871
13) Grammar School Changes - 1874
14) Ottawa Normal School -1875
16) Teaching Positions - 1880
20) Baby Boom - 1950s
21) Rural schools replaced by District schools - 1960s
22) Racial Segregation Ban - 1965
23) Teacher's College - 1970s
24) "Recent" Events
Grammar School - What is it?
War of 1812
Ryerson's Accomplishments
Confederation - 1867
Ryerson's Three Main Principles
7) Adolphus Egerton Ryerson: Chief Superintendent (1844-1876)
Born March 24, 1803 into a prominent loyalist family in Charlotteville, Norfolk County
Father was a loyalist, mother a Methodist
Ryerson converted to Methodism and left home at 18
Started out as a saddle-bag preacher and itinerant minister - rode daily throughout the Church’s Niagara circuit
Helped found the influential newspaper, the Christian Guardian
Growing prominence in the Methodist community led to his appointment as chief negotiator for his Church in Upper Canada
Secured a Royal Charter and funding for the establishment of the Upper Canada Academy in Cobourg as an alternative to the Anglican-supported Upper Canada College
1841- the Academy became a University with Ryerson as its principal - renamed Victoria College
Served as President of the Church in Canada from 1874-1878
Fought for secularization of the Clergy Reserves alongside William Lyon Mackenzie (although he opposed Mackenzie’s violent methods)
Appointed by
Sir Charles Metcalfe Governor General
Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada in 1844
Faculties of Education Now
Grade 13 is replaced by
OAC (Ontario Academic Credits)
There are now 17 universities that offer Teacher Education:
- Brock University
- Charles Sturt University
- Lakehead University
- Laurentian University
- Niagara University
- Nipissing University
- OISE/University of Toronto
- Queen’s University

- Redeemer University College
- Trent University
- Tyndale University College
- University of Ontario Institute of Technology
- University of Ottawa
- Western University
- University of Windsor
- Wilfrid Laurier University
- York University
Education funding moves to the provincial level
Streaming is no longer in the Ontario Secondary School curriculum (general/advanced become applied/academic and college/university preparation courses)
OAC is phased out and high school becomes a 4 year program
Regulation 274 for new hiring practices in the province of Ontario is introduced
Advocated for departmental control of textbooks and curriculum
Believed in equal public grants and common inspection
Wanted Catholics to be able to support the Public School system if they so desired. He was against extremists on both sides.
A.E. Ryerson (1803-1882)
Introduced central control of Grammar Schools in 1853
Introduced entrance examinations to secondary schools in 1853
Set up a system of common (elementary schools) with the Common School Act of 1864
Established school districts
Created provincially appointed inspectors and in 1855 a system of regular inspections
Created normal schools to train teachers for common schools
Changed the name of Grammar Schools to High Schools or Collegiates
19) Compulsory School Age - 1919
18) Four New Normal Schools (1900-1909)
17) Ontario's Provincial School of Pedagogy - 1890
3) Teaching Positions - early 1800s
9) Teaching Positions - 1860
11) Teaching Positions - 1870
There was an equal number of male and female teachers working in schools
Male teachers would receive double the pay of female teachers
10 )The Common School Act/Grammar School Act - 1864
2 female teachers could be hired for the cost of 1 male teacher
Female teachers considered transient because they had to quit when married under the law
Females only hired to teach lower grades because it was believed they lacked the ability to discipline and because teaching young children was considered non-academic (motherly)
Females could not be principals, Headmasters, or inspectors
The teaching career was still not considered prestigious so the pay for a teacher was still very low
Spearheaded under Ryerson’s leadership
In Grammar schools the compulsory school attendance age of 12 years old was created
Changed the view of which courses should be offered because there were more students attending school than ever before
World War I (1914 - 1918)
World War II (1939-1945)
Normal Schools renamed Teacher Colleges
By: Anja Radakovic and Heather Towns
Was called The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act, 1791
Led to establishment of Upper and Lower Canada
This led to the appointment of an upper house, known as legislative council
Parts of Upper Canada granted to clergymen and the income from these lands went back to the Church of England

Existed from December 26, 1791 to February 10, 1841
Established by the UK to govern part of the British North America and accommodate Loyalist refugees
Major “cities”:
York (Toronto)
Sandwich (Windsor)
Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake)
Port Colborne

In the early 1800s teaching positions were filled by clergy or by people with no qualifications
This was because teaching was not seen as a worthy profession
This act provided the first publicly funded schools
There were eight schools which were opened in what is now Ontario
A grammar school was meant to teach language, mathematics, natural science, history and geography
It taught classical curriculum to sons of elite “gentlemen”
Usually led by Church of England clergymen

Military conflict between the United States and Great Britain
Canada was invaded a number of times by the Americans
Fought in Upper Canada, Lower Canada, on the Great Lakes and the Atlantic, and in the United States
The Treaty of Ghent ended the war
Contributed to a growing sense of
national identity
The Family Compact emerged as a group of United Empire Loyalists who fled the United States immediately after the Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and thus were exempt from British suspicion of Americans who had only emigrated for land, as many who came after 1800 did
An elite council appointed by the Governor of the colony
Controlled the clergy endowments, government, businesses, politics, religious affairs of the colony, and grammar schools
Based in York
Bishop John Strachan
, head of the Anglican Church considered the leader of The Family Compact
5) Family Compact Established
Bishop John Strachan
Represented progressive industrialization and promoted activities like building canals and establishing banks
Contributed to keeping the masses ignorant and only educating the sons of the elite
Wanted to keep education under the rule of the Church of England in order to maintain English rule in Canada
Not very popular with the masses;
William Lyon Mackenzie
speaks out against them often
Held power until 1848 when fair elections could be held after the people revolted against the hold that they had left England to escape
William Lyon Mackenzie
Changes in technology and agriculture allowed the development of mass production and large-scale farming
Steam engines, stronger and more precise tools, and mechanical production of interchangeable parts all contributed to change the economy structure of England
A new middle class was created which influenced political thinking in England and Canada
In England, parliament introduced a series of inclosure acts which allowed large landlords to enclose fields previously used by small farmers
The result was a large number of displaced people who made the Great Migration to the New World
They added to the number of people discontented with the Family Compact and contributed to the rebellion against them
Industrial Revolution
Passed by British Parliament in July 1840 and proclaimed law in February 1841
United the colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada under one government
Created the Province of Canada
Created the position of General Superintendent of Education
Inspired by Lord Durham’s Report on Canada regarding the causes of the Rebellions of 1837
Heavily opposed by the Family Compact
This was revised in 1843:
Revisions included creating the position of Chief Superintendent of Education of Canada West (now known as Ontario).
Sir Charles Metcalfe Governor General Chief
Provincial Normal School (1847):
Located in St. James Square in Toronto
Also housed the Department of Education, the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts, and an agricultural school
In 1848 a Provincial Model School was opened in the renovated Government House stables
Eligibility requirements for teacher training:
Over 16 years of age
Capable of reading and writing
Capable of simple arithmetic
Have a clergy’s letter attesting to moral character
Attend lectures from 9am until 8pm daily
Respect the curfew of 9:30pm
Attend Church on Sunday
3 out of 4 teachers were male
Females were allowed to attend teacher training at the Normal School but in 1853 a rule was established that there could be no contact between female and male students
Common School Act:
School districts were established
Trustees were appointed to collect funds from local taxes and administer them
Created provincial inspectors and normal schools (specifically for teaching in a common school)
Pushed forward by Ryerson and was based off the ‘factory model’ to train the masses in simple mathematics, language, health and safety, and how to follow routines so that they would be prepared for real life (potentially as factory workers)
Common schools later became known as Elementary schools
Grammar School Act:
No longer solely controlled by church groups or companies
Government agreed to match local grants thereby allowing more schools to be built
July 1, 1867
Three British colonies became four provinces of the new Dominion of Canada under the British North America Act
The provinces included: Ontario and Quebec (formerly the Province of Canada), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
Spearheaded by John A. Macdonald who went on to become Canada’s first Prime Minister
Ryerson changed the name of Grammar schools to high schools or collegiates
More incentive was given to schools to have more qualified teachers: if the school had at least four qualified teachers with a masters, and at least 60 male students taking Latin or Greek, then the school would get a grant of $750
A second teacher training school for Common schools opened
Called the Ottawa Normal School
The Ontario Normal School changed its name to the Toronto Normal School
Adam Crooks (1827-1885) sworn in as Ontario’s first Minister of Education on February 19, 1876 and held the position for 7 years
Virtually hand-picked by Ryerson
Also worked as provincial treasurer from 1872-1877
Introduced stricter certification requirements for teachers, a provincial network of county model schools for teacher training and a reduction in the number of required subjects on the elementary school curriculum
15) First Minister of Education - 1876
Adam Crooks
Established in 1890
Purpose was to train secondary school teachers
Prior to this it was believed that secondary school teachers only required preparation in specific subject areas and not in the methods of teaching
The additional qualifications resulted in higher salary scales for secondary teachers
In 1906, it left Hamilton and became part of the Toronto Normal School and was called the Ontario College of Education (OCE)
For 45 years it was the sole institution in Ontario preparing secondary school teachers
Directly funded and controlled by the Ministry of Education
Four new Normal Schools:
London Normal School (1900)
Peterborough Normal School (1908)
Stratford Normal School (1908)
North Bay Normal School (1909)
Trained teachers up to grade 10
Run by the Ministry of Education
London Normal School
Peterborough Normal School
Stratford Normal School
North Bay Normal School
Global war centered in Europe
July 28 1914 to November 11 1918
Allies: United Kingdom (including Canada and Australia), France, and Russian Empire (also joined by Italy, Japan, and the United States)
Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary (later joined by the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria)
Over 70 million military personnel deployed
War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919
First major action at Ypres on April 22, 1915 - Flanders Field is written by John McCrae as a result of this battle
Battle of the Somme July 1, 1916 - Newfoundland Regiment suffered heavy losses
Battle of Vimy Ridge April 9, 1917 - 4 day battle, the first time all four divisions of the Canadian Corps fought together as one formation -
considered a key point in shaping Canada as a nation
Battle of Passchendaele from October to November 1917
2 800 Canadian Nursing Sisters served with the Canadian Medical Corps
4 000 Aboriginal Canadians enlisted during the war representing nearly ⅓ of all Aboriginal-Canadian men eligible to serve
650 000 men and women from Canada and Newfoundland served in the war
More than 66 000 Canadians gave their lives and over 172 000 were wounded
Canada’s Role
The war impacted the social situation of many families
More females were going into the workforce, so children were being left at home alone
Caused the compulsory school attendance age to be changed to 16 in 1919
Global war involving all the great powers
Allies: France, Poland, Great Britain, British Commonwealth (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa), India, Netherlands, Norway, Yugoslavia, and later the Soviet Union and the United States
Axis: Germany, Japan, and Italy
Mass death of civilians including the Holocaust in which approximately 11 million Gypsies, Poles, communists, homosexuals, Soviet POWs, physically disabled, and Jewish peoples were systematically killed by members of the Axis Alliance under Nazi rule and spearheaded by Adolf Hitler
Canada's Role
Dieppe raid, August 19, 1942 - known as Operation Jubilee and involving more than 6 000 men, including 5 000 Canadians, soldiers stormed five different points along a 16 km stretch of heavily defended beach resulting in heavy casualties
More than 26 000 Canadian soldiers died during the Italian Campaign during which the Allies successfully defeated the Italians
D-Day, June 6, 1944 - More than 14 000 Canadians participated in the Allied storming of Normandy, France
More than 50 000 women served in the military effort
At least 3 000 Aboriginal Canadians volunteered to serve
16 Canadians awarded the Victoria Cross for most conspicuous bravery in the presence of the enemy during the war
The Royal Canadian Navy began the war with 13 vessels and 3 500 sailors and ended with the third largest Allied navy with 373 ships and more than 110 000 sailors
More than 1 million Canadians and Newfoundlanders served
More than 45 000 Canadians gave their lives and another 55 000 were wounded
Impact on Education
Changed education because Canadian schools were educating students in non-academic areas as well, such as how to survive in case of a nuclear war
During the Cold War which followed WWII, Canadian schools also felt huge pressure to ‘keep up’ with their Russian counterparts, thereby including more math and science
The baby boom brought with it a lot of children entering the schooling system and having to remain there for many years because of the compulsory school age of 16
400, 000 Canadian children entered grade one in 1952
Increased the number of schools that had to be built
Created a need for a greater variety of programs to suit the vast number of students attending school
This was brought on because there was a stronger belief that teachers needed to be better educated
Rural schools were replaced with district school in the late 1960s
District schools were just like the rural schools but they had bigger cafeterias and more diverse classrooms
Now included classes such as workshops, art and musical classrooms
In 1965 racial segregation in schools was banned in Ontario
This allowed students of different races to be taught in the same classrooms and learn together
The last racially segregated school in Ontario was closed in 1965 near Chatham, in Merlin
Toronto never had racially segregated schools
This allowed students to learn more about people from all walks of life, benefiting students and the society in a huge way
Teacher colleges got transferred to Universities and became the Faculties of Education
This solidified the fact that teachers should be treated as professionals and teaching as a profession was no longer seen as a lowly career

Barnett, J. (2014). Class 5 Ed & Schooling:Then and Now [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://learn.nipissingu.ca/
Barnett, J. (2014) Class 4 Topic: History of Education [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://learn.nipissingu.ca/
Barnett, J. (2014) Answers to Film ‘Growing Up Canadian’ questions [Word document]. Retrieved from https://learn.nipissingu.ca/
**Websites accessed between October 21, 2014 and October 24, 2014
Full day kindergarten is implemented
Occured because both parents are in the workforce and are not at home to take care of the children
Full transcript