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Characteristics of Life
Transcript of Characteristics of Life
Growth and Development
Every organism experiences change during its life and has a particular growth and development pattern.
Growth is the increase of size and complexity of an organism.
Development is the changes that it goes through as it grows.
Response to Environment
Organisms must be able to respond to stimuli from their environment to get the things they need.
Most animals have nervous systems made up of neurons that allow them to respond to situations in the environment.The structure of the neurons allow them to give and take information.
In order for an animal to detect stimuli they must have sensory neurons which respond to a particular stimulus.
DNA is a molecule that has the genetic information that all organisms need in order to grow, live and reproduce. It can then be copied and passed on to its offspring in a process called replication. Replication is when the two DNA strands are separated and paired with new templates which makes sure that each DNA set is the same.
Cells are the basic units of all organisms and each can be composed of one or more cells.Even the smallest units are considered fully alive and can perform all the the important processes for life.
cells reproduce, respond to their surroundings and grow.
Organisms contain DNA which control the function and activities of the cell as well as the structure and traits that make it up.
They're highly organized and complex despite their small size.
Reproduction is the process in which organisms produce the same kind of organism (offspring).
There are two types of reproduction;
Sexual reproduction which requires two parents to produce an offspring and asexual reproduction which only requires one parent.
In sexual reproduction the offspring get some traits from both parents while in asexual reproduction the offspring is identical to its parent.
Homeostasis is an organisms ability to maintain stabilized conditions internally even when environmental conditions change. In order for homeostasis to work the organism must respond to stimuli and make adjustments.
Metabolism is all the chemical reactions combined that allow an organism to break down or build up substances.
The organisms body can break down complex substances into simpler substances that the body needs or make simple material more complex.
One of the most important chemical reactions is the breaking down of food to release its energy.
It must take in energy and materials to reproduce, grow and develop.
Plants and Sun
As a tadpole becomes an adult, the frog goes through metamorphosis where it develops its front and back legs and lungs.
The body shape goes through changes and the frog becomes significantly larger in size as it gets into adulthood.
When dragon fly larva hatches it becomes a nymph. A nymph looks "alien like" with a hump attached to its back.
Once the dragonfly nymph completes metamorphosis and is completely grown it sheds its skin and develops its wings and becomes an adult.
If someone lights a match and puts it near your skin even as a toddler you will flinch or pull away. This is how the body naturally responds to heat to avoid getting burned.
If you put a plant in a box and put a hole in the side so that sunlight can come through the plant will grow to the side.
Plants grow towards sunlight because it's very important in the process of photosynthesis and the growth of seedlings. The plants do this by elongating their stem cells towards the direction of the strongest light source.
Since bananas do not produce seeds they are grown by using a part of an existing banana tree which will then grow into its own.
A male and a female dog come together and sexually reproduce resulting in a puppy who has genetic information from both its parents.
When the temperature outside drops, your body begins to shiver by your muscles expanding and contracting in order to produce heat to keep your core temperature stable.
When the temperature outside increases, your body sweats in order to cool itself down so that it doesn't overheat.
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Bryner, Michelle. "Why Do We Shiver When Cold?" LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 08 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2014.
"Nutrition Wonderland." Understanding Our Bodies: Insulin | . N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2014.
Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014.
When food is consumed it is broken down into smaller substances that can be absorbed and used as nutrients by the body.
The body produces insulin in order to control blood glucose levels.
The muscle and fat tissues as well as the liver are signaled by insulin to store glucose which they rely on for energy as glycogen and when the level drops the amount of insulin produced slows down.
The DNA of these cells are kept in the nucleus where it is protected by the nuclear envelope that only allows some macromolecules to leave and enter carrying information.
The DNA of these cells are found around the cytoplasm where they are able to respond quickly to stimuli by changing the amount of proteins they produce.
Bacteria is a single cell organism and it performs anything that a living thing would.They maintain their physical and chemical balance and are adaptable too almost any living situation.
Humans are multicellular organisms.All the cells work together but they each play a different role.
Populations of organisms change over time to adapt to permanent changes in the environment. By doing this the group is less likely to become extinct. Evolution can be seen in the structure of proteins, DNA patterns and physical features.
As time goes by insects are becoming resistant to pesticide. This is happening because some insects survive pesticides being used. When they reproduce their offspring will more than likely inherit that gene.
When the light colored peppered moth weren't able to camouflage on tree bark because they darkened due to pollutions, they were becoming easier prey for birds. As a result, the dark peppered moths became the dominant population of the two because it was now able to camouflage on tree bark without getting eaten.
Monkeys are multicellular organisms so they have different cells that perform different tasks. For example, the brain cells transfers information to and from the brain and body and blood cells transfer oxygen.
They contain DNA which is very similar to humans but they are set apart by appearance and behavior.
In the embryonic stage monkeys develop their vital organs and their nervous system. As time goes on it develops its head and other parts of its body.After this time the monkey continues to grow until its born and grows until its an adult.
When monkeys first evolved most living things had already been extinct, monkeys evolved from squirrel-like creatures and developed disposable thumbs and the ability to walk on their back back legs. Since there isn't much fossil information on this there isn't much that can be said.
Monkeys get rid of all unwanted waste from their body by excretion which prevents it from building up and possibly poisoning it.
They maintain homeostasis in many ways one of them being maintaining a constant body temperature so they produce sweat when they're hot and shiver when they're cold.
Monkeys sexually reproduce so when a male and female monkey mate the sperm from the male fertilizes the females egg and they produce an offspring carrying genes fro both of them. They also respond to stimuli by the simple things such as sleeping when the sun goes down or their fight or flight instinct when being attacked.
Scientific Name Macaca mulatta
By: Shania Cuffy
There is no one characteristic that can define living things but there are characteristics that most living things have in common such as evolution, a genetic code, being made up of cells, reproduction, and growth and development, maintaining an internal stable environment and responding to their environment.